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      December 2019 Report 1084

      Women in the labor force: a databook

      Women in the labor force: a databook image

      In 2018, 57.1 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was about the same as the 57.0 percent who participated in 2017, and still about 3 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.1 percent in 2018, unchanged from the previous year and 17.5 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

      The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century.  Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. With the dawn of the 21st century, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline, until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 at 56.7 percent.

      Women’s involvement in the labor market has changed in several notable ways over the past several decades. For example, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: from 1970 to 2018, the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree quadrupled, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women also have become more likely to work full time and year round. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 81 percent in 2018.  More recently, women in the baby-boom generation (defined as people born between 1946 and 1964) have begun to retire in large numbers, which has put downward pressure on their labor force participation rate over the past decade or so.

      This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

      Selected demographic characteristics

      Women’s labor force participation was 57.1 percent in 2018, little changed from 57.0 percent in 2017. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.1 percent in 2018, unchanged from the previous year. (See table 2.)

      In 2018, the unemployment rate for women was 3.8 percent, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 3.9 percent in 2018, also down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s unemployment rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. In 2018, Asian women had the lowest rate (3.0 percent), followed by White women (3.4 percent). Unemployment rates for Hispanic or Latino women and Black or African American women were much higher, at 5.1 percent and 6.0 percent, respectively. Men’s unemployment rates exhibit a similar pattern. The rates for Asian men (3.0 percent) and White men (3.5 percent) were well below the figures for Hispanic or Latino men (4.3 percent) and Black or African American men (7.0 percent). (See tables 2 and 3.)

      Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never-married women had the highest participation rate of all women at 64.5 percent in 2018. Separated and divorced women were more likely to participate in the labor force (62.7 percent and 61.2 percent, respectively) than married women (58.2 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.1 percent) than separated men (70.2 percent), never-married men (67.7 percent), and divorced men (64.4 percent). Among women and men who were widowed, the labor participation rates were 19.5 percent and 24.0 percent, respectively. (See table 4.)

      The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 71.4 percent in March 2018, about unchanged (71.3 percent) from 2017. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 76.5 percent in March 2018, was higher than for those with younger children. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 64.7 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 62.0 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

      Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2018, 77.3 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 69.0 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

      Educational attainment

      The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past half century. In 2018, 44 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2018, 6 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

      Occupation and industry

      Women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations in 2018, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 19 percent of software developers, 27 percent of chief executives, and 37 percent of lawyers were women, whereas 89 percent of registered nurses, 80 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

      In 2018, Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (53 percent and 45 percent, respectively) than were Black (36 percent) and Hispanic women (27 percent). Meanwhile, Hispanic (31 percent) and Black women (28 percent) were more likely than Asian and White women (21 percent and 20 percent, respectively) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

      Women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors in 2018: financial activities (53 percent), education and health services (74 percent), leisure and hospitality (52 percent), and other services (54 percent). (Other services includes repair and maintenance industries; personal and laundry services; membership associations and organizations; and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (26 percent), mining (14 percent), construction (10 percent), manufacturing (29 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

      Earnings

      In 2018, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $789, which represented 81.1 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($973). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($937) and Whites ($817) than for Blacks ($654) and Hispanics ($617). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (89.0 percent) and Hispanics (85.7 percent) than for Whites (81.5 percent) and Asians (75.5 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

      Women’s median usual weekly earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2018, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had earnings of $469. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $616, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $746, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,145. (See table 17.)

      Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2018 for female nurse practitioners and pharmacists ($1,891 and $1,890, respectively), lawyers ($1,762), and chief executives ($1,736). Earnings for men were highest for physicians and surgeons ($2,513), chief executives ($2,488), architectural and engineering managers ($2,285), and pharmacists ($2,271). (See table 18.)

      In 2018, 2.6 percent of women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 1.7 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 6.3 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

      Hours of work

      In 2018, 24 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2018. This rate for men had trended up during the Great Recession before beginning a gradual decline in 2012. (See table 21.)

      Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2017, 63 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 75 percent in 2017. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

      Married-couple families

      Among married-couple families, 53 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2017, compared with 44 percent in 1967. These rates are below the peak of 60 percent in 1996. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 19 percent of married-couple families in 2017, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

      The working poor

      Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2017, more women (3.8 million) than men (3.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.3 percent for women and 3.8 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were much more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 10.0 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively, compared with 4.5 percent for White women and 2.5 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

      Worker displacement

      From January 2015 through December 2017, 3.0 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2018: the reemployment rate was 65 percent for women and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2018, at 14 percent and 15 percent, respectively. Displaced women were slightly more likely to have left the labor force in January 2018 than displaced men (21 percent and 18 percent, respectively). (See table 27; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

      Employee tenure

      In January 2018, the median number of years that employed women had been with their employers was 4.0 years, unchanged from January 2016. Median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

      School enrollment

      Of the 3.2 million young people ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2018, 69.1 percent (2.2 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For the 2018 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 71.4 percent for young women and 66.9 percent for young men. (See table 29; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

      Among high school students, young women were more likely to be in the labor force (24.6 percent) in October 2018 than were young men (20.9 percent). Labor force participation rates followed the same pattern among college students: college women had a labor force participation rate of 49.7 percent, and college men had a participation rate of 44.9 percent. (See table 30; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

      Among young people ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2018, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 12.3 percent for young women and 15.7 percent for young men. In contrast, the unemployment rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 6.6 percent each. (See table 30; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

      Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

      In 2018, 7.8 million workers had more than one job. About half (3.9 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.4 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.6 percent. (See table 31.)

      In 2018, 4.9 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.7 percent of men. Among the self-employed, 39.3 percent were women in 2018, compared with 26.8 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

      Foreign-born

      Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2018 (54.3 percent, compared with 57.6 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (77.9 percent) than were native-born men (67.3 percent). Among women, the unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 4.1 percent, was higher than that for native-born women, at 3.8 percent. At 3.0 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.2 percent). (See table 33.)

      Union membership

      In 2018, 9.9 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.1 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2018 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

      Veterans

      There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2018. Women accounted for 12.0 percent of the 9.5 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 3.0 percent in 2018, was similar to that of male veterans, at 3.5 percent. (See table 35.)

      People with disabilities

      Of the 16.1 million women with disabilities in 2018, 2.9 million, or 17.8 percent, participated in the labor force. A little over half of women with disabilities (52 percent) were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.5 percent, compared with 30.9 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among the 14.0 million men with disabilities, 24.2 percent participated in the labor force in 2018. About 46 percent of all men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.7 percent were labor force participants, compared with 35.8 percent of men ages 16 to 64 with disabilities.                                                                                                   

      Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 8.1 percent and that for men was 7.9 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (3.7 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively). (See table 36.)                         

      Statistical Tables

      Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Age Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      16 years and older

      257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

      16 to 19 years

      16,765 5,885 35.1 5,126 30.6 759 12.9 10,879

      16 to 17 years

      8,917 2,133 23.9 1,838 20.6 295 13.8 6,784

      18 to 19 years

      7,848 3,753 47.8 3,289 41.9 464 12.4 4,095

      20 to 24 years

      21,239 15,099 71.1 14,051 66.2 1,048 6.9 6,140

      25 to 54 years

      126,390 103,705 82.1 100,314 79.4 3,391 3.3 22,685

      25 to 34 years

      44,581 36,774 82.5 35,324 79.2 1,450 3.9 7,807

      25 to 29 years

      22,948 18,893 82.3 18,073 78.8 820 4.3 4,054

      30 to 34 years

      21,633 17,881 82.7 17,251 79.7 630 3.5 3,752

      35 to 44 years

      40,569 33,619 82.9 32,616 80.4 1,003 3.0 6,950

      35 to 39 years

      21,143 17,491 82.7 16,947 80.2 544 3.1 3,653

      40 to 44 years

      19,426 16,129 83.0 15,670 80.7 459 2.8 3,297

      45 to 54 years

      41,240 33,311 80.8 32,373 78.5 938 2.8 7,929

      45 to 49 years

      20,504 16,873 82.3 16,412 80.0 461 2.7 3,631

      50 to 54 years

      20,736 16,438 79.3 15,961 77.0 477 2.9 4,298

      55 to 64 years

      42,114 27,354 65.0 26,565 63.1 789 2.9 14,760

      55 to 59 years

      21,677 15,679 72.3 15,226 70.2 453 2.9 5,998

      60 to 64 years

      20,437 11,675 57.1 11,339 55.5 336 2.9 8,762

      65 years and older

      51,283 10,032 19.6 9,705 18.9 327 3.3 41,251

      65 to 69 years

      16,961 5,592 33.0 5,417 31.9 175 3.1 11,369

      70 to 74 years

      13,393 2,615 19.5 2,525 18.9 90 3.4 10,778

      75 years and older

      20,929 1,826 8.7 1,764 8.4 62 3.4 19,103

      Women

      16 years and older

      133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

      16 to 19 years

      8,272 2,977 36.0 2,639 31.9 338 11.3 5,295

      16 to 17 years

      4,390 1,130 25.7 991 22.6 139 12.3 3,260

      18 to 19 years

      3,882 1,847 47.6 1,648 42.5 198 10.7 2,035

      20 to 24 years

      10,600 7,312 69.0 6,861 64.7 452 6.2 3,288

      25 to 54 years

      64,096 48,264 75.3 46,641 72.8 1,623 3.4 15,831

      25 to 34 years

      22,376 16,985 75.9 16,298 72.8 687 4.0 5,391

      25 to 29 years

      11,476 8,825 76.9 8,433 73.5 392 4.4 2,651

      30 to 34 years

      10,900 8,160 74.9 7,865 72.2 295 3.6 2,740

      35 to 44 years

      20,637 15,497 75.1 15,008 72.7 488 3.2 5,140

      35 to 39 years

      10,730 8,009 74.6 7,751 72.2 258 3.2 2,721

      40 to 44 years

      9,907 7,488 75.6 7,258 73.3 230 3.1 2,419

      45 to 54 years

      21,083 15,783 74.9 15,335 72.7 448 2.8 5,300

      45 to 49 years

      10,474 7,981 76.2 7,756 74.1 225 2.8 2,493

      50 to 54 years

      10,608 7,801 73.5 7,579 71.4 223 2.9 2,807

      55 to 64 years

      21,851 12,918 59.1 12,564 57.5 354 2.7 8,933

      55 to 59 years

      11,158 7,380 66.1 7,175 64.3 205 2.8 3,778

      60 to 64 years

      10,692 5,538 51.8 5,389 50.4 149 2.7 5,155

      65 years and older

      28,295 4,508 15.9 4,358 15.4 150 3.3 23,787

      65 to 69 years

      8,995 2,598 28.9 2,514 27.9 85 3.3 6,397

      70 to 74 years

      7,194 1,137 15.8 1,098 15.3 39 3.4 6,057

      75 years and older

      12,105 772 6.4 746 6.2 26 3.4 11,333

      Men

      16 years and older

      124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

      16 to 19 years

      8,493 2,909 34.2 2,487 29.3 422 14.5 5,585

      16 to 17 years

      4,527 1,003 22.1 847 18.7 156 15.5 3,524

      18 to 19 years

      3,967 1,906 48.1 1,640 41.4 266 13.9 2,061

      20 to 24 years

      10,639 7,786 73.2 7,190 67.6 596 7.7 2,853

      25 to 54 years

      62,294 55,440 89.0 53,673 86.2 1,768 3.2 6,854

      25 to 34 years

      22,205 19,789 89.1 19,027 85.7 763 3.9 2,416

      25 to 29 years

      11,472 10,069 87.8 9,640 84.0 428 4.3 1,403

      30 to 34 years

      10,733 9,721 90.6 9,386 87.4 335 3.4 1,013

      35 to 44 years

      19,933 18,123 90.9 17,608 88.3 515 2.8 1,810

      35 to 39 years

      10,413 9,482 91.1 9,196 88.3 285 3.0 932

      40 to 44 years

      9,519 8,641 90.8 8,412 88.4 229 2.7 878

      45 to 54 years

      20,157 17,528 87.0 17,038 84.5 490 2.8 2,629

      45 to 49 years

      10,029 8,892 88.7 8,655 86.3 236 2.7 1,137

      50 to 54 years

      10,128 8,637 85.3 8,383 82.8 254 2.9 1,491

      55 to 64 years

      20,263 14,436 71.2 14,001 69.1 435 3.0 5,827

      55 to 59 years

      10,519 8,299 78.9 8,051 76.5 248 3.0 2,220

      60 to 64 years

      9,744 6,137 63.0 5,950 61.1 187 3.0 3,607

      65 years and older

      22,988 5,525 24.0 5,348 23.3 177 3.2 17,464

      65 to 69 years

      7,966 2,993 37.6 2,903 36.4 90 3.0 4,972

      70 to 74 years

      6,199 1,478 23.8 1,427 23.0 51 3.4 4,721

      75 years and older

      8,824 1,054 11.9 1,018 11.5 36 3.4 7,770

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      1948

      103,068 60,621 58.8 58,343 56.6 2,276 3.8 42,447

      1949

      103,994 61,286 58.9 57,651 55.4 3,637 5.9 42,708

      1950

      104,995 62,208 59.2 58,918 56.1 3,288 5.3 42,787

      1951

      104,621 62,017 59.2 59,961 57.3 2,055 3.3 42,604

      1952

      105,231 62,138 59.0 60,250 57.3 1,883 3.0 43,093

      1953

      107,056 63,015 58.9 61,179 57.1 1,834 2.9 44,041

      1954

      108,321 63,643 58.8 60,109 55.5 3,532 5.5 44,678

      1955

      109,683 65,023 59.3 62,170 56.7 2,852 4.4 44,660

      1956

      110,954 66,552 60.0 63,799 57.5 2,750 4.1 44,402

      1957

      112,265 66,929 59.6 64,071 57.1 2,859 4.3 45,336

      1958

      113,727 67,639 59.5 63,036 55.4 4,602 6.8 46,088

      1959

      115,329 68,369 59.3 64,630 56.0 3,740 5.5 46,960

      1960

      117,245 69,628 59.4 65,778 56.1 3,852 5.5 47,617

      1961

      118,771 70,459 59.3 65,746 55.4 4,714 6.7 48,312

      1962

      120,153 70,614 58.8 66,702 55.5 3,911 5.5 49,539

      1963

      122,416 71,833 58.7 67,762 55.4 4,070 5.7 50,583

      1964

      124,485 73,091 58.7 69,305 55.7 3,786 5.2 51,394

      1965

      126,513 74,455 58.9 71,088 56.2 3,366 4.5 52,058

      1966

      128,058 75,770 59.2 72,895 56.9 2,875 3.8 52,288

      1967

      129,874 77,347 59.6 74,372 57.3 2,975 3.8 52,527

      1968

      132,028 78,737 59.6 75,920 57.5 2,817 3.6 53,291

      1969

      134,335 80,734 60.1 77,902 58.0 2,832 3.5 53,602

      1970

      137,085 82,771 60.4 78,678 57.4 4,093 4.9 54,315

      1971

      140,216 84,382 60.2 79,367 56.6 5,016 5.9 55,834

      1972

      144,126 87,034 60.4 82,153 57.0 4,882 5.6 57,091

      1973

      147,096 89,429 60.8 85,064 57.8 4,365 4.9 57,667

      1974

      150,120 91,949 61.3 86,794 57.8 5,156 5.6 58,171

      1975

      153,153 93,775 61.2 85,846 56.1 7,929 8.5 59,378

      1976

      156,150 96,158 61.6 88,752 56.8 7,406 7.7 59,991

      1977

      159,033 99,009 62.3 92,017 57.9 6,991 7.1 60,025

      1978

      161,910 102,251 63.2 96,048 59.3 6,202 6.1 59,659

      1979

      164,863 104,962 63.7 98,824 59.9 6,137 5.8 59,900

      1980

      167,745 106,940 63.8 99,303 59.2 7,637 7.1 60,806

      1981

      170,130 108,670 63.9 100,397 59.0 8,273 7.6 61,460

      1982

      172,271 110,204 64.0 99,526 57.8 10,678 9.7 62,067

      1983

      174,215 111,550 64.0 100,834 57.9 10,717 9.6 62,665

      1984

      176,383 113,544 64.4 105,005 59.5 8,539 7.5 62,839

      1985

      178,206 115,461 64.8 107,150 60.1 8,312 7.2 62,744

      1986

      180,587 117,834 65.3 109,597 60.7 8,237 7.0 62,752

      1987

      182,753 119,865 65.6 112,440 61.5 7,425 6.2 62,888

      1988

      184,613 121,669 65.9 114,968 62.3 6,701 5.5 62,944

      1989

      186,393 123,869 66.5 117,342 63.0 6,528 5.3 62,523

      1990

      189,164 125,840 66.5 118,793 62.8 7,047 5.6 63,324

      1991

      190,925 126,346 66.2 117,718 61.7 8,628 6.8 64,578

      1992

      192,805 128,105 66.4 118,492 61.5 9,613 7.5 64,700

      1993

      194,838 129,200 66.3 120,259 61.7 8,940 6.9 65,638

      1994

      196,814 131,056 66.6 123,060 62.5 7,996 6.1 65,758

      1995

      198,584 132,304 66.6 124,900 62.9 7,404 5.6 66,280

      1996

      200,591 133,943 66.8 126,708 63.2 7,236 5.4 66,647

      1997

      203,133 136,297 67.1 129,558 63.8 6,739 4.9 66,837

      1998

      205,220 137,673 67.1 131,463 64.1 6,210 4.5 67,547

      1999

      207,753 139,368 67.1 133,488 64.3 5,880 4.2 68,385

      2000

      212,577 142,583 67.1 136,891 64.4 5,692 4.0 69,994

      2001

      215,092 143,734 66.8 136,933 63.7 6,801 4.7 71,359

      2002

      217,570 144,863 66.6 136,485 62.7 8,378 5.8 72,707

      2003

      221,168 146,510 66.2 137,736 62.3 8,774 6.0 74,658

      2004

      223,357 147,401 66.0 139,252 62.3 8,149 5.5 75,956

      2005

      226,082 149,320 66.0 141,730 62.7 7,591 5.1 76,762

      2006

      228,815 151,428 66.2 144,427 63.1 7,001 4.6 77,387

      2007

      231,867 153,124 66.0 146,047 63.0 7,078 4.6 78,743

      2008

      233,788 154,287 66.0 145,362 62.2 8,924 5.8 79,501

      2009

      235,801 154,142 65.4 139,877 59.3 14,265 9.3 81,659

      2010

      237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

      2011

      239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

      2012

      243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

      2013

      245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 58.6 11,460 7.4 90,290

      2014

      247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 59.0 9,617 6.2 92,025

      2015

      250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

      2016

      253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

      2017

      255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

      2018

      257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

      Women

      1948

      53,071 17,335 32.7 16,617 31.3 717 4.1 35,737

      1949

      53,670 17,788 33.1 16,723 31.2 1,065 6.0 35,883

      1950

      54,270 18,389 33.9 17,340 32.0 1,049 5.7 35,881

      1951

      54,895 19,016 34.6 18,181 33.1 834 4.4 35,879

      1952

      55,529 19,269 34.7 18,568 33.4 698 3.6 36,261

      1953

      56,305 19,382 34.4 18,749 33.3 632 3.3 36,924

      1954

      56,925 19,678 34.6 18,490 32.5 1,188 6.0 37,247

      1955

      57,574 20,548 35.7 19,551 34.0 998 4.9 37,026

      1956

      58,228 21,461 36.9 20,419 35.1 1,039 4.8 36,769

      1957

      58,951 21,732 36.9 20,714 35.1 1,018 4.7 37,218

      1958

      59,690 22,118 37.1 20,613 34.5 1,504 6.8 37,574

      1959

      60,534 22,483 37.1 21,164 35.0 1,320 5.9 38,053

      1960

      61,582 23,240 37.7 21,874 35.5 1,366 5.9 38,343

      1961

      62,484 23,806 38.1 22,090 35.4 1,717 7.2 38,679

      1962

      63,321 24,014 37.9 22,525 35.6 1,488 6.2 39,308

      1963

      64,494 24,704 38.3 23,105 35.8 1,598 6.5 39,791

      1964

      65,637 25,412 38.7 23,831 36.3 1,581 6.2 40,225

      1965

      66,731 26,200 39.3 24,748 37.1 1,452 5.5 40,531

      1966

      67,795 27,299 40.3 25,976 38.3 1,324 4.8 40,496

      1967

      68,968 28,360 41.1 26,893 39.0 1,468 5.2 40,608

      1968

      70,179 29,204 41.6 27,807 39.6 1,397 4.8 40,976

      1969

      71,436 30,513 42.7 29,084 40.7 1,429 4.7 40,924

      1970

      72,782 31,543 43.3 29,688 40.8 1,855 5.9 41,239

      1971

      74,274 32,202 43.4 29,976 40.4 2,227 6.9 42,072

      1972

      76,290 33,479 43.9 31,257 41.0 2,222 6.6 42,811

      1973

      77,804 34,804 44.7 32,715 42.0 2,089 6.0 43,000

      1974

      79,312 36,211 45.7 33,769 42.6 2,441 6.7 43,101

      1975

      80,860 37,475 46.3 33,989 42.0 3,486 9.3 43,385

      1976

      82,390 38,983 47.3 35,615 43.2 3,369 8.6 43,406

      1977

      83,840 40,613 48.4 37,289 44.5 3,324 8.2 43,227

      1978

      85,334 42,631 50.0 39,569 46.4 3,061 7.2 42,703

      1979

      86,843 44,235 50.9 41,217 47.5 3,018 6.8 42,608

      1980

      88,348 45,487 51.5 42,117 47.7 3,370 7.4 42,861

      1981

      89,618 46,696 52.1 43,000 48.0 3,696 7.9 42,922

      1982

      90,748 47,755 52.6 43,256 47.7 4,499 9.4 42,993

      1983

      91,684 48,503 52.9 44,047 48.0 4,457 9.2 43,181

      1984

      92,778 49,709 53.6 45,915 49.5 3,794 7.6 43,068

      1985

      93,736 51,050 54.5 47,259 50.4 3,791 7.4 42,686

      1986

      94,789 52,413 55.3 48,706 51.4 3,707 7.1 42,376

      1987

      95,853 53,658 56.0 50,334 52.5 3,324 6.2 42,195

      1988

      96,756 54,742 56.6 51,696 53.4 3,046 5.6 42,014

      1989

      97,630 56,030 57.4 53,027 54.3 3,003 5.4 41,601

      1990

      98,787 56,829 57.5 53,689 54.3 3,140 5.5 41,957

      1991

      99,646 57,178 57.4 53,496 53.7 3,683 6.4 42,468

      1992

      100,535 58,141 57.8 54,052 53.8 4,090 7.0 42,394

      1993

      101,506 58,795 57.9 54,910 54.1 3,885 6.6 42,711

      1994

      102,460 60,239 58.8 56,610 55.3 3,629 6.0 42,221

      1995

      103,406 60,944 58.9 57,523 55.6 3,421 5.6 42,462

      1996

      104,385 61,857 59.3 58,501 56.0 3,356 5.4 42,528

      1997

      105,418 63,036 59.8 59,873 56.8 3,162 5.0 42,382

      1998

      106,462 63,714 59.8 60,771 57.1 2,944 4.6 42,748

      1999

      108,031 64,855 60.0 62,042 57.4 2,814 4.3 43,175

      2000

      110,613 66,303 59.9 63,586 57.5 2,717 4.1 44,310

      2001

      111,811 66,848 59.8 63,737 57.0 3,111 4.7 44,962

      2002

      112,985 67,363 59.6 63,582 56.3 3,781 5.6 45,621

      2003

      114,733 68,272 59.5 64,404 56.1 3,868 5.7 46,461

      2004

      115,647 68,421 59.2 64,728 56.0 3,694 5.4 47,225

      2005

      116,931 69,288 59.3 65,757 56.2 3,531 5.1 47,643

      2006

      118,210 70,173 59.4 66,925 56.6 3,247 4.6 48,037

      2007

      119,694 70,988 59.3 67,792 56.6 3,196 4.5 48,707

      2008

      120,675 71,767 59.5 67,876 56.2 3,891 5.4 48,908

      2009

      121,665 72,019 59.2 66,208 54.4 5,811 8.1 49,646

      2010

      122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

      2011

      123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

      2012

      125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

      2013

      127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 53.2 5,146 7.1 54,401

      2014

      128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 53.5 4,426 6.1 55,159

      2015

      129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

      2016

      131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

      2017

      131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

      2018

      133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

      Men

      1948

      49,996 43,286 86.6 41,725 83.5 1,559 3.6 6,710

      1949

      50,321 43,498 86.4 40,925 81.3 2,572 5.9 6,825

      1950

      50,725 43,819 86.4 41,578 82.0 2,239 5.1 6,906

      1951

      49,727 43,001 86.5 41,780 84.0 1,221 2.8 6,725

      1952

      49,700 42,869 86.3 41,682 83.9 1,185 2.8 6,832

      1953

      50,750 43,633 86.0 42,430 83.6 1,202 2.8 7,117

      1954

      51,395 43,965 85.5 41,619 81.0 2,344 5.3 7,431

      1955

      52,109 44,475 85.4 42,621 81.8 1,854 4.2 7,634

      1956

      52,723 45,091 85.5 43,379 82.3 1,711 3.8 7,633

      1957

      53,315 45,197 84.8 43,357 81.3 1,841 4.1 8,118

      1958

      54,033 45,521 84.2 42,423 78.5 3,098 6.8 8,514

      1959

      54,793 45,886 83.7 43,466 79.3 2,420 5.2 8,907

      1960

      55,662 46,388 83.3 43,904 78.9 2,486 5.4 9,274

      1961

      56,286 46,653 82.9 43,656 77.6 2,997 6.4 9,633

      1962

      56,831 46,600 82.0 44,177 77.7 2,423 5.2 10,231

      1963

      57,921 47,129 81.4 44,657 77.1 2,472 5.2 10,792

      1964

      58,847 47,679 81.0 45,474 77.3 2,205 4.6 11,169

      1965

      59,782 48,255 80.7 46,340 77.5 1,914 4.0 11,527

      1966

      60,262 48,471 80.4 46,919 77.9 1,551 3.2 11,792

      1967

      60,905 48,987 80.4 47,479 78.0 1,508 3.1 11,919

      1968

      61,847 49,533 80.1 48,114 77.8 1,419 2.9 12,315

      1969

      62,898 50,221 79.8 48,818 77.6 1,403 2.8 12,677

      1970

      64,304 51,228 79.7 48,990 76.2 2,238 4.4 13,076

      1971

      65,942 52,180 79.1 49,390 74.9 2,789 5.3 13,762

      1972

      67,835 53,555 78.9 50,896 75.0 2,659 5.0 14,280

      1973

      69,292 54,624 78.8 52,349 75.5 2,275 4.2 14,667

      1974

      70,808 55,739 78.7 53,024 74.9 2,714 4.9 15,069

      1975

      72,291 56,299 77.9 51,857 71.7 4,442 7.9 15,992

      1976

      73,759 57,174 77.5 53,138 72.0 4,036 7.1 16,585

      1977

      75,193 58,396 77.7 54,728 72.8 3,667 6.3 16,797

      1978

      76,576 59,620 77.9 56,479 73.8 3,142 5.3 16,956

      1979

      78,020 60,726 77.8 57,607 73.8 3,120 5.1 17,293

      1980

      79,398 61,453 77.4 57,186 72.0 4,267 6.9 17,945

      1981

      80,511 61,974 77.0 57,397 71.3 4,577 7.4 18,537

      1982

      81,523 62,450 76.6 56,271 69.0 6,179 9.9 19,073

      1983

      82,531 63,047 76.4 56,787 68.8 6,260 9.9 19,484

      1984

      83,605 63,835 76.4 59,091 70.7 4,744 7.4 19,771

      1985

      84,469 64,411 76.3 59,891 70.9 4,521 7.0 20,058

      1986

      85,798 65,422 76.3 60,892 71.0 4,530 6.9 20,376

      1987

      86,899 66,207 76.2 62,107 71.5 4,101 6.2 20,692

      1988

      87,857 66,927 76.2 63,273 72.0 3,655 5.5 20,930

      1989

      88,762 67,840 76.4 64,315 72.5 3,525 5.2 20,923

      1990

      90,377 69,011 76.4 65,104 72.0 3,906 5.7 21,367

      1991

      91,278 69,168 75.8 64,223 70.4 4,946 7.2 22,110

      1992

      92,270 69,964 75.8 64,440 69.8 5,523 7.9 22,306

      1993

      93,332 70,404 75.4 65,349 70.0 5,055 7.2 22,927

      1994

      94,355 70,817 75.1 66,450 70.4 4,367 6.2 23,538

      1995

      95,178 71,360 75.0 67,377 70.8 3,983 5.6 23,818

      1996

      96,206 72,087 74.9 68,207 70.9 3,880 5.4 24,119

      1997

      97,715 73,261 75.0 69,685 71.3 3,577 4.9 24,454

      1998

      98,758 73,959 74.9 70,693 71.6 3,266 4.4 24,799

      1999

      99,722 74,512 74.7 71,446 71.6 3,066 4.1 25,210

      2000

      101,964 76,280 74.8 73,305 71.9 2,975 3.9 25,684

      2001

      103,282 76,886 74.4 73,196 70.9 3,690 4.8 26,396

      2002

      104,585 77,500 74.1 72,903 69.7 4,597 5.9 27,085

      2003

      106,435 78,238 73.5 73,332 68.9 4,906 6.3 28,197

      2004

      107,710 78,980 73.3 74,524 69.2 4,456 5.6 28,730

      2005

      109,151 80,033 73.3 75,973 69.6 4,059 5.1 29,119

      2006

      110,605 81,255 73.5 77,502 70.1 3,753 4.6 29,350

      2007

      112,173 82,136 73.2 78,254 69.8 3,882 4.7 30,036

      2008

      113,113 82,520 73.0 77,486 68.5 5,033 6.1 30,593

      2009

      114,136 82,123 72.0 73,670 64.5 8,453 10.3 32,013

      2010

      115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

      2011

      116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

      2012

      117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

      2013

      118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 64.4 6,314 7.6 35,889

      2014

      119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 64.9 5,190 6.3 36,865

      2015

      121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

      2016

      122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

      2017

      123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

      2018

      124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

      Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      White

      Total, 16 years and older

      200,221 125,815 62.8 121,461 60.7 4,354 3.5 74,407

      16 to 19 years

      12,318 4,576 37.2 4,060 33.0 516 11.3 7,741

      20 to 24 years

      15,557 11,383 73.2 10,697 68.8 685 6.0 4,174

      25 to 54 years

      95,354 78,888 82.7 76,608 80.3 2,280 2.9 16,467

      55 to 64 years

      33,900 22,464 66.3 21,855 64.5 610 2.7 11,435

      65 years and older

      43,094 8,504 19.7 8,241 19.1 262 3.1 34,590

      Women, 16 years and older

      102,289 57,732 56.4 55,759 54.5 1,973 3.4 44,556

      16 to 19 years

      6,047 2,307 38.1 2,077 34.3 230 10.0 3,740

      20 to 24 years

      7,709 5,432 70.5 5,137 66.6 295 5.4 2,277

      25 to 54 years

      47,610 35,853 75.3 34,789 73.1 1,065 3.0 11,756

      55 to 64 years

      17,384 10,434 60.0 10,163 58.5 271 2.6 6,951

      65 years and older

      23,540 3,707 15.7 3,594 15.3 113 3.0 19,832

      Men, 16 years and older

      97,933 68,082 69.5 65,702 67.1 2,380 3.5 29,850

      16 to 19 years

      6,271 2,270 36.2 1,983 31.6 286 12.6 4,001

      20 to 24 years

      7,848 5,951 75.8 5,561 70.9 390 6.6 1,897

      25 to 54 years

      47,744 43,034 90.1 41,819 87.6 1,215 2.8 4,710

      55 to 64 years

      16,515 12,031 72.8 11,692 70.8 339 2.8 4,485

      65 years and older

      19,554 4,796 24.5 4,647 23.8 149 3.1 14,758

      Black or African American

      Total, 16 years and older

      32,761 20,414 62.3 19,091 58.3 1,322 6.5 12,347

      16 to 19 years

      2,499 763 30.5 596 23.8 167 21.9 1,736

      20 to 24 years

      3,172 2,173 68.5 1,940 61.2 234 10.8 998

      25 to 54 years

      17,205 13,776 80.1 13,016 75.7 760 5.5 3,429

      55 to 64 years

      5,037 2,846 56.5 2,728 54.2 117 4.1 2,191

      65 years and older

      4,848 856 17.7 812 16.7 44 5.2 3,992

      Women, 16 years and older

      17,797 10,720 60.2 10,073 56.6 646 6.0 7,077

      16 to 19 years

      1,257 395 31.4 322 25.6 73 18.4 862

      20 to 24 years

      1,636 1,128 68.9 1,027 62.7 101 8.9 509

      25 to 54 years

      9,273 7,216 77.8 6,825 73.6 391 5.4 2,057

      55 to 64 years

      2,755 1,503 54.5 1,448 52.5 55 3.7 1,252

      65 years and older

      2,875 478 16.6 451 15.7 26 5.5 2,397

      Men, 16 years and older

      14,964 9,694 64.8 9,018 60.3 676 7.0 5,270

      16 to 19 years

      1,241 367 29.6 273 22.0 94 25.7 874

      20 to 24 years

      1,535 1,046 68.1 913 59.5 133 12.7 490

      25 to 54 years

      7,932 6,560 82.7 6,191 78.0 369 5.6 1,373

      55 to 64 years

      2,282 1,343 58.9 1,281 56.1 62 4.6 939

      65 years and older

      1,974 379 19.2 361 18.3 18 4.7 1,595

      Asian

      Total, 16 years and older

      15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

      16 to 19 years

      928 182 19.6 166 17.9 16 8.9 746

      20 to 24 years

      1,368 719 52.6 660 48.2 59 8.2 649

      25 to 54 years

      9,117 7,285 79.9 7,106 77.9 179 2.5 1,832

      55 to 64 years

      2,160 1,472 68.1 1,434 66.4 38 2.6 689

      65 years and older

      2,389 478 20.0 467 19.5 11 2.4 1,910

      Women, 16 years and older

      8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

      16 to 19 years

      469 91 19.4 81 17.3 10 10.8 378

      20 to 24 years

      683 357 52.2 330 48.3 27 7.4 327

      25 to 54 years

      4,792 3,406 71.1 3,319 69.3 87 2.6 1,386

      55 to 64 years

      1,184 711 60.1 695 58.7 16 2.3 473

      65 years and older

      1,362 226 16.6 219 16.1 6 2.8 1,137

      Men, 16 years and older

      7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

      16 to 19 years

      459 91 19.8 85 18.5 6 7.0 368

      20 to 24 years

      685 363 53.0 330 48.2 33 9.0 322

      25 to 54 years

      4,324 3,879 89.7 3,787 87.6 93 2.4 445

      55 to 64 years

      976 761 77.9 739 75.7 22 2.9 216

      65 years and older

      1,026 253 24.6 248 24.1 5 2.0 774

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Total, 16 years and older

      42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

      16 to 19 years

      3,938 1,280 32.5 1,094 27.8 186 14.5 2,658

      20 to 24 years

      4,744 3,399 71.6 3,160 66.6 239 7.0 1,345

      25 to 54 years

      24,745 19,725 79.7 18,998 76.8 727 3.7 5,021

      55 to 64 years

      4,892 3,113 63.6 2,982 61.0 131 4.2 1,779

      65 years and older

      4,414 819 18.6 778 17.6 42 5.1 3,595

      Women, 16 years and older

      21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

      16 to 19 years

      1,940 631 32.5 549 28.3 82 12.9 1,309

      20 to 24 years

      2,342 1,558 66.5 1,456 62.1 103 6.6 784

      25 to 54 years

      12,149 8,350 68.7 7,980 65.7 370 4.4 3,800

      55 to 64 years

      2,518 1,337 53.1 1,278 50.8 58 4.4 1,181

      65 years and older

      2,497 347 13.9 331 13.3 16 4.5 2,150

      Men, 16 years and older

      21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

      16 to 19 years

      1,998 649 32.5 545 27.3 104 16.0 1,349

      20 to 24 years

      2,402 1,841 76.6 1,705 71.0 136 7.4 561

      25 to 54 years

      12,596 11,375 90.3 11,018 87.5 356 3.1 1,221

      55 to 64 years

      2,374 1,776 74.8 1,704 71.8 73 4.1 598

      65 years and older

      1,917 472 24.6 446 23.3 26 5.5 1,445

      Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Marital status and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      16 years and older

      257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

      Married, spouse present[¹]

      127,524 83,776 65.7 81,920 64.2 1,856 2.2 43,748

      Other marital status[²]

      130,267 78,299 60.1 73,841 56.7 4,458 5.7 51,968

      Never married

      80,036 52,950 66.2 49,566 61.9 3,384 6.4 27,087

      Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

      50,230 25,349 50.5 24,275 48.3 1,074 4.2 24,881

      Widowed

      15,201 3,115 20.5 2,975 19.6 140 4.5 12,086

      Divorced

      26,050 16,299 62.6 15,669 60.1 630 3.9 9,751

      Separated[³]

      8,979 5,935 66.1 5,631 62.7 304 5.1 3,044

      Women

      16 years and older

      133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

      Married, spouse present[¹]

      63,353 36,885 58.2 35,988 56.8 897 2.4 26,468

      Other marital status[²]

      69,759 39,094 56.0 37,074 53.1 2,019 5.2 30,666

      Never married

      38,079 24,556 64.5 23,124 60.7 1,432 5.8 13,523

      Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

      31,680 14,538 45.9 13,951 44.0 587 4.0 17,142

      Widowed

      11,794 2,296 19.5 2,204 18.7 92 4.0 9,498

      Divorced

      15,014 9,188 61.2 8,865 59.0 323 3.5 5,825

      Separated[³]

      4,872 3,054 62.7 2,882 59.1 172 5.6 1,819

      Men

      16 years and older

      124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

      Married, spouse present[¹]

      64,171 46,891 73.1 45,932 71.6 959 2.0 17,279

      Other marital status[²]

      60,508 39,205 64.8 36,766 60.8 2,439 6.2 21,302

      Never married

      41,958 28,394 67.7 26,442 63.0 1,952 6.9 13,564

      Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

      18,550 10,811 58.3 10,325 55.7 487 4.5 7,739

      Widowed

      3,407 819 24.0 771 22.6 48 5.8 2,588

      Divorced

      11,037 7,111 64.4 6,804 61.6 307 4.3 3,926

      Separated[³]

      4,106 2,881 70.2 2,750 67.0 132 4.6 1,225

      Notes: [¹] Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

      [²] Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

      [³] Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
      Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      Women, 16 years and older

      132,766 76,029 57.3 73,096 55.1 2,934 3.9 56,737

      With children under 18 years old

      34,736 24,802 71.4 23,849 68.7 953 3.8 9,934

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      19,669 15,053 76.5 14,544 73.9 508 3.4 4,616

      With children under 6 years old

      15,067 9,749 64.7 9,304 61.8 445 4.6 5,318

      With children under 3 years old

      8,452 5,236 62.0 4,998 59.1 239 4.6 3,215

      With no children under 18 years old

      98,030 51,227 52.3 49,247 50.2 1,980 3.9 46,803

      Men, 16 years and older

      124,331 85,597 68.8 81,719 65.7 3,878 4.5 38,734

      With children under 18 years old

      27,064 25,211 93.2 24,526 90.6 685 2.7 1,853

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      15,105 13,901 92.0 13,553 89.7 349 2.5 1,204

      With children under 6 years old

      11,959 11,310 94.6 10,973 91.8 337 3.0 649

      With children under 3 years old

      6,824 6,460 94.7 6,254 91.6 206 3.2 364

      With no children under 18 years old

      97,267 60,386 62.1 57,194 58.8 3,193 5.3 36,881

      White

      Women, 16 years and older

      102,123 57,895 56.7 55,952 54.8 1,942 3.4 44,229

      With children under 18 years old

      25,851 18,428 71.3 17,833 69.0 595 3.2 7,424

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      14,766 11,276 76.4 10,932 74.0 343 3.0 3,491

      With children under 6 years old

      11,085 7,152 64.5 6,901 62.3 251 3.5 3,933

      With children under 3 years old

      6,326 3,924 62.0 3,783 59.8 141 3.6 2,403

      With no children under 18 years old

      76,272 39,467 51.7 38,119 50.0 1,348 3.4 36,805

      Men, 16 years and older

      97,879 67,931 69.4 65,198 66.6 2,733 4.0 29,948

      With children under 18 years old

      21,543 20,211 93.8 19,701 91.5 510 2.5 1,332

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      12,127 11,240 92.7 10,971 90.5 269 2.4 888

      With children under 6 years old

      9,415 8,971 95.3 8,730 92.7 241 2.7 444

      With children under 3 years old

      5,417 5,171 95.5 5,039 93.0 132 2.5 246

      With no children under 18 years old

      76,337 47,721 62.5 45,497 59.6 2,223 4.7 28,616

      Black or African American

      Women, 16 years and older

      17,733 10,750 60.6 10,050 56.7 700 6.5 6,982

      With children under 18 years old

      4,841 3,740 77.2 3,458 71.4 281 7.5 1,102

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      2,697 2,143 79.5 2,019 74.9 124 5.8 554

      With children under 6 years old

      2,144 1,596 74.5 1,439 67.1 158 9.9 548

      With children under 3 years old

      1,160 820 70.7 741 63.9 79 9.7 340

      With no children under 18 years old

      12,891 7,010 54.4 6,592 51.1 418 6.0 5,881

      Men, 16 years and older

      14,904 9,518 63.9 8,795 59.0 724 7.6 5,385

      With children under 18 years old

      2,438 2,164 88.7 2,064 84.6 100 4.6 275

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      1,362 1,184 87.0 1,133 83.2 51 4.3 177

      With children under 6 years old

      1,077 979 90.9 931 86.4 48 4.9 98

      With children under 3 years old

      625 558 89.3 516 82.6 42 7.5 67

      With no children under 18 years old

      12,465 7,355 59.0 6,731 54.0 624 8.5 5,110

      Asian

      Women, 16 years and older

      8,429 4,684 55.6 4,541 53.9 143 3.0 3,745

      With children under 18 years old

      2,687 1,711 63.7 1,679 62.5 32 1.9 976

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      1,485 1,077 72.5 1,057 71.2 20 1.8 408

      With children under 6 years old

      1,202 634 52.7 622 51.7 12 1.9 568

      With children under 3 years old

      620 305 49.2 295 47.5 10 3.3 315

      With no children under 18 years old

      5,742 2,973 51.8 2,863 49.9 110 3.7 2,769

      Men, 16 years and older

      7,509 5,390 71.8 5,211 69.4 179 3.3 2,119

      With children under 18 years old

      2,248 2,081 92.6 2,045 91.0 36 1.7 167

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      1,185 1,088 91.8 1,079 91.0 10 0.9 97

      With children under 6 years old

      1,063 993 93.4 967 91.0 26 2.6 70

      With children under 3 years old

      554 519 93.6 503 90.7 16 3.1 36

      With no children under 18 years old

      5,260 3,308 62.9 3,165 60.2 143 4.3 1,952

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Women, 16 years and older

      21,287 12,046 56.6 11,428 53.7 618 5.1 9,241

      With children under 18 years old

      7,688 4,870 63.3 4,633 60.3 236 4.9 2,818

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      4,330 3,038 70.1 2,908 67.2 130 4.3 1,293

      With children under 6 years old

      3,358 1,832 54.6 1,726 51.4 106 5.8 1,526

      With children under 3 years old

      1,767 869 49.2 807 45.7 62 7.1 899

      With no children under 18 years old

      13,599 7,177 52.8 6,795 50.0 382 5.3 6,422

      Men, 16 years and older

      21,130 15,820 74.9 15,037 71.2 784 5.0 5,309

      With children under 18 years old

      5,590 5,238 93.7 5,064 90.6 174 3.3 352

      With children 6 to 17, none younger

      3,125 2,907 93.0 2,821 90.3 86 3.0 218

      With children under 6 years old

      2,465 2,331 94.6 2,243 91.0 88 3.8 134

      With children under 3 years old

      1,307 1,233 94.4 1,173 89.8 60 4.9 74

      With no children under 18 years old

      15,540 10,582 68.1 9,973 64.2 610 5.8 4,958

      Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

      Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
      Presence and age of youngest child Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total, all marital statuses

      Total women, 16 years and older

      132,766 76,029 57.3 73,096 55.1 2,934 3.9 56,737

      With children under 18 years old

      34,736 24,802 71.4 23,849 68.7 953 3.8 9,934

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      19,669 15,053 76.5 14,544 73.9 508 3.4 4,616

      With children under 6 years old

      15,067 9,749 64.7 9,304 61.8 445 4.6 5,318

      With children under 3 years old

      8,452 5,236 62.0 4,998 59.1 239 4.6 3,215

      With no children under 18 years old

      98,030 51,227 52.3 49,247 50.2 1,980 3.9 46,803

      Total, married, spouse present[¹]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      63,683 37,136 58.3 36,176 56.8 960 2.6 26,548

      With children under 18 years old

      24,521 16,908 69.0 16,478 67.2 431 2.5 7,612

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      13,544 10,119 74.7 9,882 73.0 238 2.3 3,425

      With children under 6 years old

      10,977 6,789 61.8 6,596 60.1 193 2.8 4,188

      With children under 3 years old

      6,277 3,755 59.8 3,655 58.2 100 2.7 2,523

      With no children under 18 years old

      39,163 20,227 51.6 19,698 50.3 529 2.6 18,935

      Total, other marital statuses[²]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      69,082 38,894 56.3 36,920 53.4 1,974 5.1 30,189

      With children under 18 years old

      10,215 7,894 77.3 7,371 72.2 523 6.6 2,322

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      6,125 4,933 80.5 4,663 76.1 271 5.5 1,192

      With children under 6 years old

      4,090 2,960 72.4 2,708 66.2 252 8.5 1,130

      With children under 3 years old

      2,174 1,482 68.1 1,343 61.8 139 9.4 693

      With no children under 18 years old

      58,867 31,000 52.7 29,549 50.2 1,451 4.7 27,867

      White, all marital statuses

      Total women, 16 years and older

      102,123 57,895 56.7 55,952 54.8 1,942 3.4 44,229

      With children under 18 years old

      25,851 18,428 71.3 17,833 69.0 595 3.2 7,424

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      14,766 11,276 76.4 10,932 74.0 343 3.0 3,491

      With children under 6 years old

      11,085 7,152 64.5 6,901 62.3 251 3.5 3,933

      With children under 3 years old

      6,326 3,924 62.0 3,783 59.8 141 3.6 2,403

      With no children under 18 years old

      76,272 39,467 51.7 38,119 50.0 1,348 3.4 36,805

      White, married, spouse present[¹]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      52,307 30,345 58.0 29,588 56.6 757 2.5 21,962

      With children under 18 years old

      19,474 13,538 69.5 13,208 67.8 330 2.4 5,936

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      10,797 8,066 74.7 7,887 73.0 180 2.2 2,730

      With children under 6 years old

      8,677 5,471 63.1 5,321 61.3 150 2.7 3,206

      With children under 3 years old

      5,026 3,086 61.4 3,010 59.9 75 2.4 1,940

      With no children under 18 years old

      32,833 16,807 51.2 16,380 49.9 427 2.5 16,025

      White, other marital statuses[²]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      49,817 27,550 55.3 26,364 52.9 1,185 4.3 22,267

      With children under 18 years old

      6,377 4,890 76.7 4,625 72.5 265 5.4 1,487

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      3,970 3,209 80.8 3,045 76.7 164 5.1 761

      With children under 6 years old

      2,408 1,681 69.8 1,580 65.6 101 6.0 727

      With children under 3 years old

      1,300 838 64.4 772 59.4 66 7.9 462

      With no children under 18 years old

      43,439 22,660 52.2 21,739 50.0 921 4.1 20,780

      Black or African American, all marital statuses

      Total women, 16 years and older

      17,733 10,750 60.6 10,050 56.7 700 6.5 6,982

      With children under 18 years old

      4,841 3,740 77.2 3,458 71.4 281 7.5 1,102

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      2,697 2,143 79.5 2,019 74.9 124 5.8 554

      With children under 6 years old

      2,144 1,596 74.5 1,439 67.1 158 9.9 548

      With children under 3 years old

      1,160 820 70.7 741 63.9 79 9.7 340

      With no children under 18 years old

      12,891 7,010 54.4 6,592 51.1 418 6.0 5,881

      Black or African American, married, spouse present[¹]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      4,750 2,993 63.0 2,905 61.1 89 3.0 1,757

      With children under 18 years old

      1,843 1,377 74.7 1,327 72.0 51 3.7 466

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1,051 832 79.2 803 76.4 29 3.4 219

      With children under 6 years old

      793 546 68.8 523 66.0 22 4.1 247

      With children under 3 years old

      462 291 63.1 277 60.1 14 4.7 171

      With no children under 18 years old

      2,907 1,616 55.6 1,578 54.3 38 2.4 1,291

      Black or African American, other marital statuses[²]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      12,982 7,757 59.7 7,146 55.0 611 7.9 5,226

      With children under 18 years old

      2,998 2,362 78.8 2,132 71.1 231 9.8 636

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1,647 1,311 79.6 1,216 73.9 95 7.3 335

      With children under 6 years old

      1,352 1,051 77.8 915 67.7 135 12.9 301

      With children under 3 years old

      698 529 75.8 463 66.3 66 12.5 169

      With no children under 18 years old

      9,984 5,394 54.0 5,014 50.2 380 7.0 4,590

      Asian, all marital statuses

      Total women, 16 years and older

      8,429 4,684 55.6 4,541 53.9 143 3.0 3,745

      With children under 18 years old

      2,687 1,711 63.7 1,679 62.5 32 1.9 976

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1,485 1,077 72.5 1,057 71.2 20 1.8 408

      With children under 6 years old

      1,202 634 52.7 622 51.7 12 1.9 568

      With children under 3 years old

      620 305 49.2 295 47.5 10 3.3 315

      With no children under 18 years old

      5,742 2,973 51.8 2,863 49.9 110 3.7 2,769

      Asian, married, spouse present[¹]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      4,943 2,814 56.9 2,737 55.4 78 2.8 2,128

      With children under 18 years old

      2,390 1,487 62.2 1,459 61.0 29 1.9 903

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1,269 906 71.4 888 69.9 18 2.0 364

      With children under 6 years old

      1,121 581 51.9 571 50.9 10 1.8 540

      With children under 3 years old

      588 293 49.7 284 48.3 9 2.9 296

      With no children under 18 years old

      2,553 1,327 52.0 1,278 50.1 49 3.7 1,225

      Asian, other marital statuses[²]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      3,486 1,869 53.6 1,805 51.8 65 3.5 1,617

      With children under 18 years old

      297 224 75.4 220 74.2 4 1.6 73

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      215 171 79.5 169 78.6 2 1.1 44

      With children under 6 years old

      81 53 64.7 51 62.5 2 3.4 29

      With children under 3 years old

      32 12 38.6 11 33.9 1 12.1 20

      With no children under 18 years old

      3,190 1,646 51.6 1,585 49.7 61 3.7 1,544

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

      Total women, 16 years and older

      21,287 12,046 56.6 11,428 53.7 618 5.1 9,241

      With children under 18 years old

      7,688 4,870 63.3 4,633 60.3 236 4.9 2,818

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      4,330 3,038 70.1 2,908 67.2 130 4.3 1,293

      With children under 6 years old

      3,358 1,832 54.6 1,726 51.4 106 5.8 1,526

      With children under 3 years old

      1,767 869 49.2 807 45.7 62 7.1 899

      With no children under 18 years old

      13,599 7,177 52.8 6,795 50.0 382 5.3 6,422

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present[¹]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      9,524 5,210 54.7 4,987 52.4 223 4.3 4,314

      With children under 18 years old

      5,137 2,948 57.4 2,818 54.9 130 4.4 2,189

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      2,887 1,882 65.2 1,815 62.9 67 3.6 1,004

      With children under 6 years old

      2,250 1,066 47.4 1,004 44.6 63 5.9 1,184

      With children under 3 years old

      1,178 509 43.2 477 40.5 32 6.3 669

      With no children under 18 years old

      4,387 2,262 51.6 2,169 49.4 93 4.1 2,125

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses[²]

      Total women, 16 years and older

      11,763 6,836 58.1 6,441 54.8 395 5.8 4,927

      With children under 18 years old

      2,551 1,921 75.3 1,815 71.2 106 5.5 630

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1,444 1,156 80.0 1,093 75.7 62 5.4 288

      With children under 6 years old

      1,107 766 69.2 722 65.2 44 5.7 342

      With children under 3 years old

      589 360 61.1 330 56.0 30 8.2 230

      With no children under 18 years old

      9,212 4,915 53.4 4,626 50.2 289 5.9 4,297

      [¹]Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

      [²] Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

      Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

      Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Civilian labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of labor force

      With children under age 18

      1975

      14,616 47.4 13,069 1,548 11.0

      1976

      15,073 48.8 13,725 1,346 8.9

      1977

      15,669 50.8 14,276 1,393 8.9

      1978

      16,385 53.0 15,142 1,242 7.6

      1979

      16,883 54.5 15,624 1,259 7.7

      1980

      17,790 56.6 16,526 1,264 7.1

      1981

      18,422 58.1 16,952 1,471 8.0

      1982

      18,744 58.5 16,854 1,890 10.1

      1983

      18,924 58.9 16,792 2,131 11.3

      1984

      19,555 60.5 17,782 1,773 9.1

      1985

      20,041 62.1 18,306 1,735 8.7

      1986

      20,620 62.8 18,922 1,698 8.2

      1987

      21,422 64.7 19,798 1,624 7.6

      1988

      21,545 65.1 20,141 1,404 6.5

      1989

      21,936 65.7 20,647 1,289 5.9

      1990

      22,196 66.7 20,865 1,331 6.0

      1991

      22,327 66.6 20,774 1,552 7.0

      1992

      22,756 67.2 21,052 1,704 7.5

      1993

      23,063 66.9 21,521 1,541 6.7

      1994

      24,191 68.4 22,467 1,724 7.1

      1995

      24,695 69.7 23,195 1,500 6.1

      1996

      24,720 70.2 23,386 1,334 5.4

      1997

      25,604 72.1 24,082 1,522 5.9

      1998

      25,647 72.3 24,209 1,438 5.6

      1999

      25,472 72.1 24,307 1,165 4.6

      2000

      25,795 72.9 24,693 1,102 4.3

      2001

      26,269 72.7 25,030 1,239 4.7

      2002

      26,140 72.2 24,612 1,529 5.8

      2003

      26,202 71.7 24,598 1,603 6.1

      2004

      25,913 70.7 24,413 1,501 5.8

      2005

      25,941 70.5 24,564 1,377 5.3

      2006

      26,009 70.6 24,728 1,281 4.9

      2007

      26,834 71.3 25,646 1,188 4.4

      2008

      25,930 71.2 24,637 1,294 5.0

      2009

      26,122 71.6 24,079 2,043 7.8

      2010

      25,783 71.3 23,510 2,273 8.8

      2011

      25,376 70.9 23,109 2,266 8.9

      2012

      25,384 70.9 23,366 2,018 7.9

      2013

      25,112 70.3 23,121 1,991 7.9

      2014

      25,209 70.8 23,542 1,667 6.6

      2015

      25,107 69.9 23,841 1,265 5.0

      2016

      25,070 70.8 23,877 1,193 4.8

      2017

      24,863 71.3 23,748 1,114 4.5

      2018

      24,802 71.4 23,849 953 3.8

      With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

      1975

      8,917 54.9 8,218 700 7.9

      1976

      9,388 56.2 8,769 621 6.6

      1977

      10,040 58.3 9,389 650 6.5

      1978

      10,401 60.0 9,845 556 5.3

      1979

      10,646 61.6 10,030 615 5.8

      1980

      11,252 64.3 10,640 612 5.4

      1981

      11,490 65.5 10,725 765 6.7

      1982

      11,377 65.8 10,440 936 8.2

      1983

      11,340 66.3 10,303 1,037 9.1

      1984

      11,538 68.1 10,739 799 6.9

      1985

      11,826 69.9 10,984 842 7.1

      1986

      12,075 70.4 11,320 756 6.3

      1987

      12,438 72.0 11,661 778 6.3

      1988

      12,683 73.3 12,042 641 5.1

      1989

      12,800 74.2 12,168 632 4.9

      1990

      12,799 74.7 12,133 666 5.2

      1991

      12,691 74.4 12,017 674 5.3

      1992

      13,183 75.9 12,391 793 6.0

      1993

      13,441 75.4 12,757 684 5.1

      1994

      13,863 76.0 13,074 789 5.7

      1995

      14,300 76.4 13,608 691 4.8

      1996

      14,427 77.2 13,794 633 4.4

      1997

      14,993 78.1 14,282 711 4.7

      1998

      15,028 78.4 14,370 658 4.4

      1999

      15,150 78.5 14,633 516 3.4

      2000

      15,479 79.0 14,931 549 3.5

      2001

      15,839 79.4 15,220 619 3.9

      2002

      15,948 78.6 15,171 777 4.9

      2003

      15,993 78.7 15,166 828 5.2

      2004

      15,782 77.5 15,006 776 4.9

      2005

      15,594 76.9 14,930 663 4.3

      2006

      15,579 76.9 14,949 630 4.0

      2007

      15,940 77.7 15,341 599 3.8

      2008

      15,479 77.5 14,842 636 4.1

      2009

      15,625 78.2 14,562 1,063 6.8

      2010

      15,247 77.2 14,058 1,189 7.8

      2011

      14,973 76.5 13,842 1,131 7.6

      2012

      14,922 76.0 13,908 1,014 6.8

      2013

      14,941 74.8 13,909 1,032 6.9

      2014

      15,227 75.8 14,389 838 5.5

      2015

      15,059 74.6 14,437 622 4.1

      2016

      15,135 75.0 14,519 616 4.1

      2017

      15,080 76.0 14,481 599 4.0

      2018

      15,053 76.5 14,544 508 3.4

      With children under age 6

      1975

      5,699 39.0 4,851 848 14.9

      1976

      5,684 40.1 4,957 727 12.8

      1977

      5,629 41.2 4,887 742 13.2

      1978

      5,983 44.0 5,297 687 11.5

      1979

      6,238 45.7 5,594 644 10.3

      1980

      6,538 46.8 5,886 652 10.0

      1981

      6,933 48.9 6,227 706 10.2

      1982

      7,367 49.9 6,414 953 12.9

      1983

      7,583 50.5 6,489 1,094 14.4

      1984

      8,017 52.1 7,043 974 12.1

      1985

      8,215 53.5 7,322 893 10.9

      1986

      8,545 54.4 7,602 943 11.0

      1987

      8,983 56.7 8,137 846 9.4

      1988

      8,862 56.1 8,099 763 8.6

      1989

      9,136 56.7 8,478 657 7.2

      1990

      9,397 58.2 8,732 664 7.1

      1991

      9,636 58.4 8,758 878 9.1

      1992

      9,573 58.0 8,662 911 9.5

      1993

      9,621 57.9 8,764 857 8.9

      1994

      10,328 60.3 9,394 935 9.0

      1995

      10,395 62.3 9,587 809 7.8

      1996

      10,293 62.3 9,592 701 6.8

      1997

      10,610 65.0 9,800 810 7.6

      1998

      10,619 65.2 9,839 780 7.3

      1999

      10,322 64.4 9,674 648 6.3

      2000

      10,316 65.3 9,763 553 5.4

      2001

      10,430 64.4 9,810 620 5.9

      2002

      10,193 64.1 9,441 752 7.4

      2003

      10,209 62.9 9,433 776 7.6

      2004

      10,131 62.2 9,407 724 7.1

      2005

      10,347 62.6 9,634 714 6.9

      2006

      10,430 63.0 9,779 651 6.2

      2007

      10,894 63.5 10,305 589 5.4

      2008

      10,452 63.6 9,794 657 6.3

      2009

      10,497 63.6 9,517 980 9.3

      2010

      10,536 64.2 9,452 1,085 10.3

      2011

      10,403 64.2 9,268 1,135 10.9

      2012

      10,462 64.7 9,458 1,004 9.6

      2013

      10,171 64.7 9,212 958 9.4

      2014

      9,982 64.3 9,153 829 8.3

      2015

      10,048 63.9 9,405 643 6.4

      2016

      9,934 65.3 9,358 576 5.8

      2017

      9,783 65.1 9,268 515 5.3

      2018

      9,749 64.7 9,304 445 4.6

      With children under age 3

      1975

      2,824 34.3 2,326 500 17.7

      1976

      2,702 34.1 2,285 418 15.5

      1977

      2,795 35.4 2,371 424 15.2

      1978

      3,179 39.4 2,768 411 12.9

      1979

      3,380 41.1 2,979 401 11.9

      1980

      3,565 41.9 3,167 398 11.2

      1981

      3,826 44.3 3,380 446 11.7

      1982

      4,133 45.6 3,542 591 14.3

      1983

      4,233 46.0 3,551 682 16.1

      1984

      4,401 47.6 3,839 562 12.8

      1985

      4,601 49.5 4,089 513 11.1

      1986

      4,786 50.8 4,227 559 11.7

      1987

      5,064 52.9 4,570 494 9.8

      1988

      4,947 52.4 4,477 470 9.5

      1989

      5,053 52.4 4,671 381 7.5

      1990

      5,216 53.6 4,823 393 7.5

      1991

      5,417 54.5 4,868 550 10.1

      1992

      5,329 54.5 4,776 553 10.4

      1993

      5,349 53.9 4,857 492 9.2

      1994

      5,724 57.1 5,165 559 9.8

      1995

      5,650 58.7 5,172 478 8.5

      1996

      5,619 59.0 5,222 397 7.1

      1997

      5,839 61.8 5,366 473 8.1

      1998

      5,882 62.2 5,454 428 7.3

      1999

      5,645 60.7 5,285 359 6.4

      2000

      5,670 61.0 5,350 320 5.6

      2001

      5,743 60.7 5,350 393 6.8

      2002

      5,600 60.5 5,160 440 7.9

      2003

      5,568 58.7 5,112 456 8.2

      2004

      5,401 57.3 4,983 417 7.7

      2005

      5,704 58.9 5,299 405 7.1

      2006

      5,842 59.9 5,458 384 6.6

      2007

      6,006 60.1 5,679 327 5.5

      2008

      5,754 59.6 5,380 374 6.5

      2009

      5,960 61.1 5,401 559 9.4

      2010

      5,878 61.1 5,240 638 10.9

      2011

      5,639 60.9 5,006 633 11.2

      2012

      5,529 60.7 4,960 569 10.3

      2013

      5,448 62.1 4,937 511 9.4

      2014

      5,358 61.8 4,870 487 9.1

      2015

      5,494 61.4 5,119 375 6.8

      2016

      5,486 63.1 5,165 322 5.9

      2017

      5,449 63.1 5,153 296 5.4

      2018

      5,236 62.0 4,998 239 4.6

      With no children under age 18

      1975

      22,365 45.1 20,381 1,984 8.9

      1976

      23,327 45.7 21,389 1,938 8.3

      1977

      24,385 46.4 22,348 2,037 8.4

      1978

      25,362 47.0 23,631 1,731 6.8

      1979

      26,962 48.6 25,285 1,677 6.2

      1980

      27,144 48.1 25,375 1,769 6.5

      1981

      27,992 48.7 25,934 2,059 7.4

      1982

      28,351 48.6 26,041 2,311 8.2

      1983

      28,856 48.7 26,373 2,483 8.6

      1984

      29,684 49.3 27,652 2,032 6.8

      1985

      30,850 50.4 28,814 2,036 6.6

      1986

      31,112 50.5 29,107 2,005 6.4

      1987

      31,538 50.5 29,688 1,850 5.9

      1988

      32,490 51.2 30,911 1,580 4.9

      1989

      33,255 51.9 31,761 1,495 4.5

      1990

      33,942 52.3 32,391 1,551 4.6

      1991

      34,047 52.0 32,167 1,880 5.5

      1992

      34,487 52.3 32,481 2,006 5.8

      1993

      34,495 52.1 32,476 2,020 5.9

      1994

      35,455 53.1 33,345 2,110 6.0

      1995

      35,843 52.9 34,054 1,789 5.0

      1996

      36,509 53.0 34,698 1,811 5.0

      1997

      37,295 53.6 35,572 1,723 4.6

      1998

      38,253 54.1 36,680 1,573 4.1

      1999

      39,314 54.3 37,587 1,727 4.4

      2000

      40,142 54.8 38,408 1,733 4.3

      2001

      40,996 54.4 39,363 1,633 4.0

      2002

      41,278 54.0 39,038 2,241 5.4

      2003

      42,039 54.1 39,667 2,372 5.6

      2004

      42,289 53.8 40,000 2,289 5.4

      2005

      42,677 53.5 40,570 2,107 4.9

      2006

      43,392 53.6 41,440 1,952 4.5

      2007

      44,039 53.9 42,279 1,760 4.0

      2008

      45,585 54.3 43,417 2,168 4.8

      2009

      45,649 53.8 42,343 3,306 7.2

      2010

      46,098 53.5 42,256 3,842 8.3

      2011

      46,198 53.0 42,569 3,629 7.9

      2012

      47,222 52.6 43,494 3,728 7.9

      2013

      47,607 52.3 44,294 3,313 7.0

      2014

      48,076 52.1 44,980 3,096 6.4

      2015

      48,273 51.7 45,794 2,479 5.1

      2016

      49,663 52.1 47,180 2,484 5.0

      2017

      50,675 52.5 48,541 2,134 4.2

      2018

      51,227 52.3 49,247 1,980 3.9

      Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

      Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Educational attainment and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      Total, 25 to 64 years

      168,504 131,058 77.8 126,879 75.3 4,180 3.2 37,445

      Less than a high school diploma

      15,552 9,573 61.6 9,030 58.1 543 5.7 5,979

      High school graduates, no college

      46,197 33,521 72.6 32,140 69.6 1,382 4.1 12,675

      Some college or associate's degree

      44,758 34,982 78.2 33,834 75.6 1,149 3.3 9,776

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      61,997 52,982 85.5 51,876 83.7 1,105 2.1 9,016

      Bachelor's degree

      39,884 33,577 84.2 32,843 82.3 735 2.2 6,307

      Advanced degree

      22,114 19,404 87.7 19,033 86.1 371 1.9 2,709

      Master's degree

      16,488 14,334 86.9 14,039 85.1 295 2.1 2,154

      Professional degree

      2,402 2,133 88.8 2,100 87.4 32 1.5 269

      Doctoral degree

      3,223 2,937 91.1 2,894 89.8 43 1.5 286

      Women

      Total, 25 to 64 years

      85,946 61,182 71.2 59,205 68.9 1,977 3.2 24,764

      Less than a high school diploma

      7,331 3,457 47.2 3,230 44.1 227 6.6 3,874

      High school graduates, no college

      21,550 13,645 63.3 13,065 60.6 580 4.2 7,905

      Some college or associate's degree

      23,760 17,292 72.8 16,686 70.2 606 3.5 6,467

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      33,306 26,788 80.4 26,223 78.7 564 2.1 6,518

      Bachelor's degree

      21,240 16,650 78.4 16,286 76.7 365 2.2 4,590

      Advanced degree

      12,065 10,138 84.0 9,938 82.4 200 2.0 1,928

      Master's degree

      9,419 7,827 83.1 7,669 81.4 158 2.0 1,592

      Professional degree

      1,151 982 85.3 968 84.1 14 1.5 169

      Doctoral degree

      1,495 1,328 88.8 1,301 87.0 27 2.1 167

      Men

      Total, 25 to 64 years

      82,557 69,876 84.6 67,674 82.0 2,203 3.2 12,681

      Less than a high school diploma

      8,220 6,116 74.4 5,800 70.6 317 5.2 2,104

      High school graduates, no college

      24,647 19,876 80.6 19,074 77.4 802 4.0 4,770

      Some college or associate's degree

      20,998 17,690 84.2 17,147 81.7 543 3.1 3,308

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      28,692 26,194 91.3 25,653 89.4 541 2.1 2,498

      Bachelor's degree

      18,644 16,927 90.8 16,557 88.8 370 2.2 1,716

      Advanced degree

      10,048 9,267 92.2 9,095 90.5 171 1.8 782

      Master's degree

      7,069 6,507 92.0 6,370 90.1 137 2.1 562

      Professional degree

      1,251 1,151 92.0 1,133 90.5 18 1.6 100

      Doctoral degree

      1,728 1,609 93.1 1,593 92.2 16 1.0 119

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–91
      Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
      Total High school College
      Less than 4 years 4 years, no college 1 to 3 years 4 years or more

      Total

      1970

      61,765 100.0 36.1 38.1 11.8 14.1

      1971

      62,344 100.0 34.5 38.4 12.3 14.8

      1972

      63,704 100.0 33.3 38.8 12.4 15.5

      1973

      64,775 100.0 30.9 39.7 13.0 16.4

      1974

      66,527 100.0 29.3 39.5 13.7 17.5

      1975

      67,774 100.0 27.5 39.7 14.4 18.3

      1976

      69,243 100.0 25.8 39.6 15.2 19.4

      1977

      71,324 100.0 24.9 39.2 15.7 20.2

      1978

      73,504 100.0 23.7 39.2 16.5 20.6

      1979

      75,781 100.0 21.8 39.5 17.3 21.3

      1980

      78,010 100.0 20.6 39.8 17.6 22.0

      1981

      80,273 100.0 19.7 40.6 17.7 22.0

      1982

      81,516 100.0 18.8 40.8 17.3 23.1

      1983

      83,615 100.0 17.8 39.9 18.1 24.2

      1984

      86,001 100.0 16.7 40.2 18.4 24.7

      1985

      88,424 100.0 15.9 40.2 19.0 24.9

      1986

      90,500 100.0 15.5 40.2 19.5 24.8

      1987

      92,966 100.0 14.9 40.2 19.7 25.3

      1988

      94,870 100.0 14.7 39.9 19.7 25.7

      1989

      97,318 100.0 14.0 39.6 20.0 26.4

      1990

      99,175 100.0 13.4 39.5 20.7 26.4

      1991

      100,480 100.0 13.0 39.4 21.1 26.5

      Women

      1970

      22,462 100.0 33.5 44.3 10.9 11.2

      1971

      22,804 100.0 32.2 44.2 11.9 11.8

      1972

      23,606 100.0 30.7 45.1 11.8 12.4

      1973

      24,158 100.0 28.4 45.9 12.4 13.3

      1974

      25,203 100.0 26.7 45.3 13.4 14.6

      1975

      26,146 100.0 26.5 45.5 13.9 14.1

      1976

      27,166 100.0 24.0 45.1 14.7 16.2

      1977

      28,369 100.0 22.8 45.1 15.2 16.9

      1978

      29,738 100.0 22.0 44.9 16.1 17.0

      1979

      31,151 100.0 20.1 45.0 17.1 17.8

      1980

      32,593 100.0 18.4 45.4 17.4 18.7

      1981

      33,910 100.0 17.4 46.1 17.9 18.6

      1982

      34,870 100.0 16.6 45.6 18.3 19.5

      1983

      35,712 100.0 15.6 44.8 18.8 20.9

      1984

      37,234 100.0 14.5 44.9 18.9 21.7

      1985

      38,779 100.0 13.7 44.4 19.9 22.0

      1986

      39,767 100.0 13.2 44.3 20.3 22.2

      1987

      41,105 100.0 12.5 44.0 20.7 22.8

      1988

      42,254 100.0 12.4 43.3 21.2 23.1

      1989

      43,650 100.0 11.9 42.9 20.9 24.3

      1990

      44,699 100.0 11.3 42.4 21.9 24.5

      1991

      45,315 100.0 10.9 41.6 22.2 25.2

      Men

      1970

      39,303 100.0 37.5 34.5 12.2 15.7

      1971

      39,539 100.0 35.9 35.1 12.5 16.5

      1972

      40,098 100.0 34.8 35.1 12.8 17.3

      1973

      40,617 100.0 32.4 36.0 13.4 18.2

      1974

      41,344 100.0 30.8 36.0 13.9 19.3

      1975

      41,628 100.0 28.9 36.1 14.8 20.2

      1976

      42,077 100.0 27.0 36.0 15.5 21.5

      1977

      42,954 100.0 26.3 35.3 16.1 22.3

      1978

      43,766 100.0 24.8 35.3 16.9 23.0

      1979

      44,630 100.0 23.0 35.7 17.5 23.8

      1980

      45,417 100.0 22.2 35.7 17.7 24.3

      1981

      46,363 100.0 21.5 36.5 17.4 24.6

      1982

      47,144 100.0 20.3 36.8 17.5 25.5

      1983

      47,903 100.0 19.4 36.3 17.7 26.6

      1984

      48,767 100.0 18.4 36.7 18.0 26.9

      1985

      49,647 100.0 17.7 36.9 18.3 27.1

      1986

      50,733 100.0 17.2 37.0 18.9 26.9

      1987

      51,860 100.0 16.8 37.1 18.9 27.2

      1988

      52,616 100.0 16.5 37.3 18.5 27.8

      1989

      53,668 100.0 15.7 36.9 19.2 28.2

      1990

      54,476 100.0 15.1 37.2 19.7 28.0

      1991

      55,165 100.0 14.7 37.5 20.2 27.6

      Note: Data from 1970–91 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2018
      Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
      Total Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college[¹] Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher[²]

      Total

      1992

      103,018 100.0 12.1 35.7 25.6 26.6

      1993

      104,237 100.0 11.3 35.1 26.6 27.0

      1994

      105,610 100.0 10.8 33.9 27.7 27.6

      1995

      107,032 100.0 10.4 33.2 28.1 28.3

      1996

      108,932 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.8 28.7

      1997

      110,945 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.5 29.0

      1998

      111,932 100.0 10.5 32.4 27.4 29.8

      1999

      113,095 100.0 10.0 31.8 27.6 30.5

      2000

      115,750 100.0 10.1 31.4 27.8 30.7

      2001

      116,893 100.0 10.1 30.9 28.0 31.0

      2002

      118,028 100.0 10.0 30.7 27.7 31.6

      2003

      119,621 100.0 9.9 30.3 27.6 32.1

      2004

      120,135 100.0 9.7 30.1 27.7 32.4

      2005

      121,752 100.0 9.8 29.9 27.8 32.5

      2006

      123,550 100.0 9.7 29.6 27.7 33.0

      2007

      125,104 100.0 9.3 29.2 27.7 33.8

      2008

      126,011 100.0 9.0 28.8 28.0 34.2

      2009

      126,247 100.0 9.0 28.6 28.0 34.4

      2010

      126,237 100.0 8.9 28.6 27.9 34.6

      2011

      125,508 100.0 8.7 28.0 28.0 35.3

      2012

      125,963 100.0 8.4 27.4 28.2 36.0

      2013

      125,892 100.0 8.2 27.1 28.0 36.7

      2014

      126,269 100.0 8.0 26.7 27.9 37.3

      2015

      127,106 100.0 8.1 25.9 27.7 38.2

      2016

      128,713 100.0 7.8 25.9 27.6 38.7

      2017

      129,582 100.0 7.4 25.8 27.2 39.5

      2018

      131,058 100.0 7.3 25.6 26.7 40.4

      Women

      1992

      46,589 100.0 10.3 37.4 27.3 25.0

      1993

      47,245 100.0 9.3 36.6 28.4 25.7

      1994

      48,405 100.0 9.0 35.0 29.8 26.2

      1995

      49,247 100.0 8.8 34.1 30.2 26.9

      1996

      50,240 100.0 8.8 33.6 29.9 27.8

      1997

      51,261 100.0 8.7 33.5 29.4 28.4

      1998

      51,678 100.0 8.8 32.7 29.4 29.2

      1999

      52,525 100.0 8.5 32.1 29.5 29.9

      2000

      53,749 100.0 8.5 31.6 29.8 30.1

      2001

      54,229 100.0 8.4 31.0 30.2 30.4

      2002

      54,710 100.0 8.1 30.6 29.9 31.3

      2003

      55,596 100.0 7.9 30.0 29.9 32.2

      2004

      55,616 100.0 7.7 29.4 30.2 32.6

      2005

      56,322 100.0 7.7 28.7 30.2 33.3

      2006

      57,201 100.0 7.6 28.3 30.2 33.9

      2007

      57,791 100.0 7.1 27.9 30.1 34.9

      2008

      58,465 100.0 6.9 27.2 30.4 35.6

      2009

      58,787 100.0 7.0 26.7 30.3 36.0

      2010

      58,808 100.0 6.8 26.4 30.3 36.4

      2011

      58,520 100.0 6.7 25.8 30.4 37.1

      2012

      59,031 100.0 6.5 25.0 30.4 38.1

      2013

      58,812 100.0 6.3 24.6 30.1 39.0

      2014

      58,983 100.0 6.1 24.1 29.8 40.0

      2015

      59,252 100.0 6.1 23.2 29.6 41.1

      2016

      60,049 100.0 6.0 22.9 29.6 41.6

      2017

      60,614 100.0 5.8 22.7 28.9 42.7

      2018

      61,182 100.0 5.7 22.3 28.3 43.8

      Men

      1992

      56,428 100.0 13.7 34.2 24.3 27.8

      1993

      56,992 100.0 12.9 33.9 25.1 28.1

      1994

      57,205 100.0 12.4 33.0 25.9 28.8

      1995

      57,784 100.0 11.8 32.4 26.3 29.4

      1996

      58,692 100.0 12.2 32.3 26.1 29.4

      1997

      59,684 100.0 12.2 32.4 25.9 29.6

      1998

      60,255 100.0 12.0 32.1 25.6 30.3

      1999

      60,570 100.0 11.4 31.6 26.0 31.0

      2000

      62,001 100.0 11.5 31.2 26.1 31.2

      2001

      62,664 100.0 11.5 30.9 26.2 31.4

      2002

      63,318 100.0 11.6 30.8 25.8 31.8

      2003

      64,025 100.0 11.7 30.6 25.6 32.1

      2004

      64,519 100.0 11.5 30.7 25.6 32.3

      2005

      65,430 100.0 11.5 30.9 25.7 31.9

      2006

      66,350 100.0 11.5 30.6 25.5 32.3

      2007

      67,313 100.0 11.2 30.4 25.6 32.9

      2008

      67,546 100.0 10.9 30.2 25.9 33.0

      2009

      67,460 100.0 10.8 30.3 25.9 33.0

      2010

      67,429 100.0 10.6 30.6 25.8 33.0

      2011

      66,989 100.0 10.4 30.0 26.0 33.7

      2012

      66,932 100.0 10.0 29.6 26.2 34.1

      2013

      67,081 100.0 9.8 29.2 26.2 34.7

      2014

      67,287 100.0 9.8 29.1 26.2 35.0

      2015

      67,853 100.0 9.9 28.4 26.0 35.7

      2016

      68,664 100.0 9.3 28.6 25.9 36.2

      2017

      68,968 100.0 8.9 28.6 25.7 36.8

      2018

      69,876 100.0 8.8 28.4 25.3 37.5

      [¹]Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

      [²] Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

      Note: Data from 1970–91 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Occupation and gender Year
      2017 2018
      Number Percent Number Percent

      Total

      Total, 16 years and older

      153,337 100.0 155,761 100.0

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      60,901 39.7 62,436 40.1

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      25,379 16.6 25,850 16.6

      Professional and related occupations

      35,522 23.2 36,586 23.5

      Service occupations

      26,751 17.4 26,854 17.2

      Sales and office occupations

      33,566 21.9 33,461 21.5

      Sales and related occupations

      15,815 10.3 15,806 10.1

      Office and administrative support occupations

      17,751 11.6 17,655 11.3

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      14,193 9.3 14,471 9.3

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      1,184 0.8 1,121 0.7

      Construction and extraction occupations

      8,031 5.2 8,338 5.4

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      4,977 3.2 5,012 3.2

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      17,927 11.7 18,539 11.9

      Production occupations

      8,482 5.5 8,621 5.5

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      9,445 6.2 9,918 6.4

      Women

      Total, 16 years and older

      71,936 100.0 73,063 100.0

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      31,413 43.7 32,149 44.0

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      11,171 15.5 11,387 15.6

      Professional and related occupations

      20,241 28.1 20,763 28.4

      Service occupations

      15,130 21.0 15,439 21.1

      Sales and office occupations

      20,593 28.6 20,453 28.0

      Sales and related occupations

      7,770 10.8 7,807 10.7

      Office and administrative support occupations

      12,823 17.8 12,646 17.3

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      720 1.0 745 1.0

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      278 0.4 273 0.4

      Construction and extraction occupations

      243 0.3 285 0.4

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      200 0.3 187 0.3

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      4,080 5.7 4,278 5.9

      Production occupations

      2,450 3.4 2,480 3.4

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      1,630 2.3 1,797 2.5

      Men

      Total, 16 years and older

      81,402 100.0 82,698 100.0

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      29,488 36.2 30,287 36.6

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      14,207 17.5 14,464 17.5

      Professional and related occupations

      15,281 18.8 15,823 19.1

      Service occupations

      11,621 14.3 11,416 13.8

      Sales and office occupations

      12,973 15.9 13,008 15.7

      Sales and related occupations

      8,045 9.9 7,999 9.7

      Office and administrative support occupations

      4,929 6.1 5,010 6.1

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      13,473 16.6 13,726 16.6

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      907 1.1 848 1.0

      Construction and extraction occupations

      7,788 9.6 8,053 9.7

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      4,778 5.9 4,825 5.8

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      13,846 17.0 14,261 17.2

      Production occupations

      6,031 7.4 6,140 7.4

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      7,815 9.6 8,121 9.8

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Occupation Total employed Percent women

      Total, 16 years and older

      155,761 46.9

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      62,436 51.5

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      25,850 44.0

      Management occupations

      18,263 40.0

      Chief executives

      1,573 26.9

      General and operations managers

      1,037 31.7

      Legislators

      18 -

      Advertising and promotions managers

      44 -

      Marketing and sales managers

      1,083 47.6

      Public relations and fundraising managers

      69 72.8

      Administrative services managers

      161 34.2

      Computer and information systems managers

      623 27.0

      Financial managers

      1,231 55.2

      Compensation and benefits managers

      23 -

      Human resources managers

      313 77.9

      Training and development managers

      58 48.6

      Industrial production managers

      264 22.0

      Purchasing managers

      219 45.3

      Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

      303 16.0

      Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

      991 25.8

      Construction managers

      1,021 7.7

      Education administrators

      955 66.9

      Architectural and engineering managers

      156 11.5

      Food service managers

      1,273 49.2

      Funeral service managers

      3 -

      Gaming managers

      28 -

      Lodging managers

      153 56.0

      Medical and health services managers

      639 72.0

      Natural sciences managers

      9 -

      Postmasters and mail superintendents

      24 -

      Property, real estate, and community association managers

      717 49.7

      Social and community service managers

      437 69.1

      Emergency management directors

      10 -

      Managers, all other

      4,827 35.4

      Business and financial operations occupations

      7,587 53.8

      Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

      54 53.8

      Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

      12 -

      Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

      193 50.7

      Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

      244 46.7

      Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

      344 57.4

      Compliance officers

      281 53.7

      Cost estimators

      117 14.1

      Human resources workers

      664 70.7

      Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

      48 -

      Training and development specialists

      120 54.4

      Logisticians

      128 37.3

      Management analysts

      944 41.3

      Meeting, convention, and event planners

      126 76.3

      Fundraisers

      96 69.3

      Market research analysts and marketing specialists

      355 60.2

      Business operations specialists, all other

      236 59.3

      Accountants and auditors

      1,929 60.6

      Appraisers and assessors of real estate

      84 45.3

      Budget analysts

      51 62.2

      Credit analysts

      26 -

      Financial analysts

      307 40.7

      Personal financial advisors

      537 33.5

      Insurance underwriters

      119 59.7

      Financial examiners

      13 -

      Credit counselors and loan officers

      350 54.1

      Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

      47 -

      Tax preparers

      113 56.8

      Financial specialists, all other

      48 -

      Professional and related occupations

      36,586 56.8

      Computer and mathematical occupations

      5,126 25.6

      Computer and information research scientists

      19 -

      Computer systems analysts

      652 37.5

      Information security analysts

      97 24.9

      Computer programmers

      477 21.2

      Software developers, applications and systems software

      1,682 19.3

      Web developers

      208 32.5

      Computer support specialists

      566 28.1

      Database administrators

      108 37.9

      Network and computer systems administrators

      204 21.2

      Computer network architects

      114 10.3

      Computer occupations, all other

      732 21.9

      Actuaries

      33 -

      Mathematicians

      3 -

      Operations research analysts

      131 49.1

      Statisticians

      90 53.8

      Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

      8 -

      Architecture and engineering occupations

      3,263 15.9

      Architects, except naval

      239 29.7

      Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

      47 -

      Aerospace engineers

      147 13.4

      Agricultural engineers

      5 -

      Biomedical engineers

      11 -

      Chemical engineers

      72 16.3

      Civil engineers

      456 14.8

      Computer hardware engineers

      71 18.9

      Electrical and electronics engineers

      269 9.4

      Environmental engineers

      36 -

      Industrial engineers, including health and safety

      246 23.0

      Marine engineers and naval architects

      17 -

      Materials engineers

      41 -

      Mechanical engineers

      333 10.9

      Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

      8 -

      Nuclear engineers

      14 -

      Petroleum engineers

      27 -

      Engineers, all other

      576 12.7

      Drafters

      133 20.6

      Engineering technicians, except drafters

      439 18.1

      Surveying and mapping technicians

      76 3.2

      Life, physical, and social science occupations

      1,529 46.7

      Agricultural and food scientists

      37 -

      Biological scientists

      104 47.5

      Conservation scientists and foresters

      22 -

      Medical scientists

      169 52.1

      Life scientists, all other

      1 -

      Astronomers and physicists

      20 -

      Atmospheric and space scientists

      12 -

      Chemists and materials scientists

      118 37.7

      Environmental scientists and geoscientists

      100 33.1

      Physical scientists, all other

      305 43.9

      Economists

      36 -

      Survey researchers

      3 -

      Psychologists

      224 75.9

      Sociologists

      5 -

      Urban and regional planners

      29 -

      Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

      46 -

      Agricultural and food science technicians

      36 -

      Biological technicians

      19 -

      Chemical technicians

      68 25.3

      Geological and petroleum technicians

      12 -

      Nuclear technicians

      10 -

      Social science research assistants

      2 -

      Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

      152 47.7

      Community and social service occupations

      2,680 66.5

      Counselors

      895 72.0

      Social workers

      835 81.6

      Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

      104 56.9

      Social and human service assistants

      208 77.7

      Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

      71 76.3

      Clergy

      415 22.4

      Directors, religious activities and education

      76 57.8

      Religious workers, all other

      76 59.2

      Legal occupations

      1,891 51.6

      Lawyers

      1,199 37.4

      Judicial law clerks

      13 -

      Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

      80 32.3

      Paralegals and legal assistants

      444 86.4

      Miscellaneous legal support workers

      156 73.1

      Education, training, and library occupations

      9,313 73.2

      Postsecondary teachers

      1,417 49.0

      Preschool and kindergarten teachers

      716 97.6

      Elementary and middle school teachers

      3,421 79.8

      Secondary school teachers

      1,062 58.0

      Special education teachers

      369 87.5

      Other teachers and instructors

      905 61.9

      Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

      45 -

      Librarians

      178 78.5

      Library technicians

      33 -

      Teacher assistants

      994 88.9

      Other education, training, and library workers

      173 73.9

      Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

      3,362 46.8

      Artists and related workers

      232 52.2

      Designers

      984 53.0

      Actors

      36 -

      Producers and directors

      201 29.2

      Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

      359 34.9

      Dancers and choreographers

      24 -

      Musicians, singers, and related workers

      202 35.0

      Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

      68 51.0

      Announcers

      56 17.7

      News analysts, reporters and correspondents

      79 51.7

      Public relations specialists

      140 65.7

      Editors

      160 52.2

      Technical writers

      69 55.9

      Writers and authors

      227 59.6

      Miscellaneous media and communication workers

      111 70.8

      Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

      120 12.4

      Photographers

      208 47.8

      Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

      82 16.1

      Media and communication equipment workers, all other

      5 -

      Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

      9,420 75.0

      Chiropractors

      63 21.1

      Dentists

      162 35.7

      Dietitians and nutritionists

      104 93.1

      Optometrists

      54 46.0

      Pharmacists

      348 63.4

      Physicians and surgeons

      1,094 40.3

      Physician assistants

      132 72.1

      Podiatrists

      11 -

      Audiologists

      10 -

      Occupational therapists

      116 86.8

      Physical therapists

      286 69.5

      Radiation therapists

      16 -

      Recreational therapists

      11 -

      Respiratory therapists

      108 63.8

      Speech-language pathologists

      152 96.0

      Exercise physiologists

      5 -

      Therapists, all other

      237 82.1

      Veterinarians

      102 71.2

      Registered nurses

      3,213 88.6

      Nurse anesthetists

      26 -

      Nurse midwives

      3 -

      Nurse practitioners

      212 87.2

      Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

      40 -

      Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

      318 75.2

      Dental hygienists

      178 97.1

      Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

      346 67.9

      Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

      214 33.9

      Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

      694 80.6

      Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

      658 87.8

      Medical records and health information technicians

      171 93.6

      Opticians, dispensing

      61 73.4

      Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

      139 66.5

      Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

      137 52.1

      Service occupations

      26,854 57.5

      Healthcare support occupations

      3,629 87.1

      Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

      2,035 89.3

      Occupational therapy assistants and aides

      35 -

      Physical therapist assistants and aides

      88 67.4

      Massage therapists

      155 83.2

      Dental assistants

      293 96.0

      Medical assistants

      570 90.6

      Medical transcriptionists

      44 -

      Pharmacy aides

      34 -

      Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

      56 86.3

      Phlebotomists

      115 75.0

      Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

      204 64.0

      Protective service occupations

      3,203 22.5

      First-line supervisors of correctional officers

      45 -

      First-line supervisors of police and detectives

      88 17.0

      First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

      49 -

      First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

      86 22.4

      Firefighters

      306 5.1

      Fire inspectors

      23 -

      Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

      406 29.6

      Detectives and criminal investigators

      164 24.4

      Fish and game wardens

      7 -

      Parking enforcement workers

      4 -

      Police and sheriff's patrol officers

      728 15.4

      Transit and railroad police

      2 -

      Animal control workers

      19 -

      Private detectives and investigators

      96 49.5

      Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

      958 22.4

      Crossing guards

      66 53.2

      Transportation security screeners

      41 -

      Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

      117 46.3

      Food preparation and serving related occupations

      8,220 55.5

      Chefs and head cooks

      427 22.0

      First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

      563 57.2

      Cooks

      2,067 41.8

      Food preparation workers

      988 61.0

      Bartenders

      474 57.2

      Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

      322 63.0

      Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

      202 68.8

      Waiters and waitresses

      2,020 69.9

      Food servers, nonrestaurant

      226 70.2

      Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

      309 45.7

      Dishwashers

      263 24.3

      Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

      354 81.6

      Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

      5 -

      Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

      5,854 41.3

      First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

      339 42.4

      First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

      254 8.0

      Janitors and building cleaners

      2,342 34.1

      Maids and housekeeping cleaners

      1,512 90.1

      Pest control workers

      79 8.4

      Grounds maintenance workers

      1,328 6.7

      Personal care and service occupations

      5,947 76.9

      First-line supervisors of gaming workers

      187 44.4

      First-line supervisors of personal service workers

      208 73.3

      Animal trainers

      55 72.6

      Nonfarm animal caretakers

      268 77.6

      Gaming services workers

      102 47.8

      Motion picture projectionists

      1 -

      Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

      35 -

      Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

      210 38.3

      Embalmers and funeral attendants

      17 -

      Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

      34 -

      Barbers

      132 21.0

      Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

      834 92.1

      Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

      449 83.6

      Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

      92 22.6

      Tour and travel guides

      65 43.6

      Childcare workers

      1,193 94.0

      Personal care aides

      1,354 84.4

      Recreation and fitness workers

      497 60.5

      Residential advisors

      41 -

      Personal care and service workers, all other

      171 68.1

      Sales and office occupations

      33,461 61.1

      Sales and related occupations

      15,806 49.4

      First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

      3,366 44.6

      First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

      1,257 28.5

      Cashiers

      3,200 73.8

      Counter and rental clerks

      114 40.6

      Parts salespersons

      127 10.4

      Retail salespersons

      3,147 48.7

      Advertising sales agents

      221 50.4

      Insurance sales agents

      619 51.4

      Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

      231 31.8

      Travel agents

      79 85.5

      Sales representatives, services, all other

      516 30.0

      Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

      1,273 27.6

      Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

      60 72.1

      Real estate brokers and sales agents

      1,072 56.2

      Sales engineers

      34 -

      Telemarketers

      58 65.3

      Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

      158 60.9

      Sales and related workers, all other

      275 48.4

      Office and administrative support occupations

      17,655 71.6

      First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

      1,450 71.7

      Switchboard operators, including answering service

      23 -

      Telephone operators

      30 -

      Communications equipment operators, all other

      9 -

      Bill and account collectors

      122 71.1

      Billing and posting clerks

      490 87.1

      Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

      1,045 86.7

      Gaming cage workers

      8 -

      Payroll and timekeeping clerks

      121 89.8

      Procurement clerks

      31 -

      Tellers

      300 85.4

      Financial clerks, all other

      92 61.9

      Brokerage clerks

      4 -

      Correspondence clerks

      4 -

      Court, municipal, and license clerks

      83 76.5

      Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

      54 64.5

      Customer service representatives

      2,563 63.7

      Eligibility interviewers, government programs

      68 80.0

      File clerks

      161 76.8

      Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

      131 68.6

      Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

      152 81.6

      Library assistants, clerical

      103 78.0

      Loan interviewers and clerks

      117 80.8

      New accounts clerks

      23 -

      Order clerks

      78 49.1

      Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

      57 83.3

      Receptionists and information clerks

      1,324 90.5

      Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

      128 59.4

      Information and record clerks, all other

      121 77.6

      Cargo and freight agents

      30 -

      Couriers and messengers

      293 21.1

      Dispatchers

      293 60.7

      Meter readers, utilities

      24 -

      Postal service clerks

      120 54.9

      Postal service mail carriers

      302 39.8

      Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

      58 56.6

      Production, planning, and expediting clerks

      269 54.0

      Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

      578 29.1

      Stock clerks and order fillers

      1,527 37.4

      Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

      56 38.9

      Secretaries and administrative assistants

      2,569 94.0

      Computer operators

      73 63.8

      Data entry keyers

      270 77.2

      Word processors and typists

      67 85.1

      Desktop publishers

      1 -

      Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

      244 82.5

      Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

      63 41.5

      Office clerks, general

      1,309 84.5

      Office machine operators, except computer

      24 -

      Proofreaders and copy markers

      11 -

      Statistical assistants

      40 -

      Office and administrative support workers, all other

      540 78.5

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      14,471 5.1

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      1,121 24.3

      First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

      60 16.5

      Agricultural inspectors

      22 -

      Animal breeders

      5 -

      Graders and sorters, agricultural products

      85 57.8

      Miscellaneous agricultural workers

      833 23.4

      Fishers and related fishing workers

      39 -

      Hunters and trappers

      3 -

      Forest and conservation workers

      16 -

      Logging workers

      58 2.6

      Construction and extraction occupations

      8,338 3.4

      First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

      634 3.5

      Boilermakers

      20 -

      Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

      143 1.9

      Carpenters

      1,375 2.2

      Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

      164 1.9

      Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

      50 .0

      Construction laborers

      2,110 3.7

      Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

      21 -

      Pile-driver operators

      1 -

      Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

      342 2.0

      Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

      164 1.6

      Electricians

      887 2.4

      Glaziers

      45 -

      Insulation workers

      60 2.5

      Painters, construction and maintenance

      607 7.2

      Paperhangers

      5 -

      Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

      641 3.5

      Plasterers and stucco masons

      19 -

      Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

      3 -

      Roofers

      201 2.6

      Sheet metal workers

      147 2.8

      Structural iron and steel workers

      60 2.2

      Solar photovoltaic installers

      16 -

      Helpers, construction trades

      77 5.6

      Construction and building inspectors

      108 14.0

      Elevator installers and repairers

      25 -

      Fence erectors

      33 -

      Hazardous materials removal workers

      36 -

      Highway maintenance workers

      105 3.9

      Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

      10 -

      Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

      9 -

      Miscellaneous construction and related workers

      28 -

      Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

      30 -

      Earth drillers, except oil and gas

      22 -

      Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

      12 -

      Mining machine operators

      65 4.9

      Roof bolters, mining

      1 -

      Roustabouts, oil and gas

      10 -

      Helpers--extraction workers

      2 -

      Other extraction workers

      49 -

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      5,012 3.7

      First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

      280 5.9

      Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

      185 13.7

      Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

      136 13.6

      Avionics technicians

      13 -

      Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

      26 -

      Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

      1 -

      Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

      11 -

      Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

      5 -

      Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

      38 -

      Security and fire alarm systems installers

      63 .7

      Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

      164 3.6

      Automotive body and related repairers

      152 1.8

      Automotive glass installers and repairers

      24 -

      Automotive service technicians and mechanics

      916 2.1

      Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

      389 .9

      Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

      211 .8

      Small engine mechanics

      51 2.7

      Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

      93 2.8

      Control and valve installers and repairers

      20 -

      Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

      472 1.4

      Home appliance repairers

      41 -

      Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

      442 2.4

      Maintenance and repair workers, general

      507 3.5

      Maintenance workers, machinery

      25 -

      Millwrights

      46 -

      Electrical power-line installers and repairers

      137 4.1

      Telecommunications line installers and repairers

      210 3.9

      Precision instrument and equipment repairers

      65 13.2

      Wind turbine service technicians

      3 -

      Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

      36 -

      Commercial divers

      1 -

      Locksmiths and safe repairers

      34 -

      Manufactured building and mobile home installers

      7 -

      Riggers

      14 -

      Signal and track switch repairers

      14 -

      Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

      16 -

      Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

      167 7.0

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      18,539 23.1

      Production occupations

      8,621 28.8

      First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

      832 19.6

      Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

      5 -

      Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

      124 49.2

      Engine and other machine assemblers

      10 -

      Structural metal fabricators and fitters

      33 -

      Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

      1,064 36.6

      Bakers

      219 61.1

      Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

      265 28.3

      Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

      6 -

      Food batchmakers

      80 63.3

      Food cooking machine operators and tenders

      14 -

      Food processing workers, all other

      158 37.0

      Computer control programmers and operators

      107 9.7

      Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      14 -

      Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      6 -

      Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      11 -

      Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      61 9.9

      Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      3 -

      Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      38 -

      Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      8 -

      Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      3 -

      Machinists

      344 6.4

      Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

      20 -

      Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

      6 -

      Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      40 -

      Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      5 -

      Tool and die makers

      50 5.7

      Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

      633 5.4

      Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      9 -

      Layout workers, metal and plastic

      9 -

      Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      17 -

      Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

      3 -

      Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

      373 18.3

      Prepress technicians and workers

      18 -

      Printing press operators

      164 22.7

      Print binding and finishing workers

      13 -

      Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

      143 71.5

      Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

      36 -

      Sewing machine operators

      174 73.4

      Shoe and leather workers and repairers

      8 -

      Shoe machine operators and tenders

      4 -

      Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

      85 75.1

      Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

      1 -

      Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

      6 -

      Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

      5 -

      Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

      5 -

      Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

      0 -

      Fabric and apparel patternmakers

      3 -

      Upholsterers

      31 -

      Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

      16 -

      Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

      65 6.5

      Furniture finishers

      20 -

      Model makers and patternmakers, wood

      0 -

      Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

      37 -

      Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

      27 -

      Woodworkers, all other

      28 -

      Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

      33 -

      Stationary engineers and boiler operators

      79 1.3

      Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

      101 7.2

      Miscellaneous plant and system operators

      38 -

      Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

      75 11.3

      Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

      79 9.1

      Cutting workers

      60 27.5

      Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

      22 -

      Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

      25 -

      Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

      807 36.6

      Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

      38 -

      Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

      87 54.2

      Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

      277 55.8

      Painting workers

      165 9.4

      Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

      17 -

      Semiconductor processors

      1 -

      Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

      8 -

      Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

      9 -

      Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

      4 -

      Etchers and engravers

      11 -

      Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

      37 -

      Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

      21 -

      Tire builders

      7 -

      Helpers--production workers

      53 31.8

      Production workers, all other

      1,107 29.5

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      9,918 18.1

      Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

      217 23.2

      Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

      119 9.0

      Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

      37 -

      Flight attendants

      104 74.9

      Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

      12 -

      Bus drivers

      599 43.8

      Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

      3,549 6.6

      Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

      777 18.0

      Motor vehicle operators, all other

      63 18.1

      Locomotive engineers and operators

      36 -

      Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

      5 -

      Railroad conductors and yardmasters

      53 7.1

      Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

      15 -

      Sailors and marine oilers

      21 -

      Ship and boat captains and operators

      33 -

      Ship engineers

      6 -

      Bridge and lock tenders

      7 -

      Parking lot attendants

      87 9.7

      Automotive and watercraft service attendants

      102 20.5

      Transportation inspectors

      37 -

      Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

      40 -

      Other transportation workers

      24 -

      Conveyor operators and tenders

      2 -

      Crane and tower operators

      68 6.0

      Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

      24 -

      Hoist and winch operators

      10 -

      Industrial truck and tractor operators

      631 8.1

      Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

      329 15.2

      Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

      2,106 21.4

      Machine feeders and offbearers

      30 -

      Packers and packagers, hand

      607 54.5

      Pumping station operators

      16 -

      Refuse and recyclable material collectors

      91 14.5

      Mine shuttle car operators

      1 -

      Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

      8 -

      Material moving workers, all other

      51 19.9

      Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Percent distribution)
      Occupation White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

      55,759 10,000 4,644 11,594

      Percent

      100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      45.2 36.2 52.5 27.2

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      16.3 11.4 17.8 9.8

      Professional and related occupations

      28.9 24.8 34.7 17.4

      Service occupations

      19.6 28.0 20.8 31.4

      Sales and office occupations

      28.7 27.0 20.0 29.5

      Sales and related occupations

      10.9 9.8 8.8 12.1

      Office and administrative support occupations

      17.8 17.2 11.3 17.4

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      1.1 0.6 0.5 2.3

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      0.4 0.1 0.2 1.2

      Construction and extraction occupations

      0.4 0.2 0.1 0.8

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      5.4 8.1 6.2 9.6

      Production occupations

      3.1 4.1 4.5 5.9

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      2.2 4.1 1.6 3.7

      Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Industry and gender Year
      2017 2018
      Number Percent Number Percent

      Total

      Total, 16 years and older

      153,337 100.0 155,761 100.0

      Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

      2,454 1.6 2,425 1.6

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      748 0.5 784 0.5

      Construction

      10,692 7.0 11,181 7.2

      Manufacturing

      15,408 10.0 15,560 10.0

      Durable goods manufacturing

      9,698 6.3 9,831 6.3

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      5,710 3.7 5,729 3.7

      Wholesale and retail trade

      20,314 13.2 20,270 13.0

      Wholesale trade

      3,594 2.3 3,671 2.4

      Retail trade

      16,720 10.9 16,599 10.7

      Transportation and utilities

      8,159 5.3 8,551 5.5

      Transportation and warehousing

      6,810 4.4 7,207 4.6

      Utilities

      1,349 0.9 1,345 0.9

      Information

      2,903 1.9 2,919 1.9

      Financial activities

      10,482 6.8 10,649 6.8

      Finance and insurance

      7,288 4.8 7,376 4.7

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      3,194 2.1 3,273 2.1

      Professional and business services

      18,835 12.3 18,950 12.2

      Professional and technical services

      11,764 7.7 12,105 7.8

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      7,072 4.6 6,845 4.4

      Education and health services

      34,483 22.5 35,043 22.5

      Educational services

      13,763 9.0 13,910 8.9

      Health care and social assistance

      20,720 13.5 21,133 13.6

      Hospitals

      7,042 4.6 7,108 4.6

      Health services, except hospitals

      10,359 6.8 10,636 6.8

      Social assistance

      3,319 2.2 3,389 2.2

      Leisure and hospitality

      14,291 9.3 14,268 9.2

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      3,399 2.2 3,362 2.2

      Accommodation and food services

      10,891 7.1 10,905 7.0

      Other services

      7,485 4.9 7,742 5.0

      Other services, except private households

      6,828 4.5 6,965 4.5

      Private households

      657 0.4 777 0.5

      Public administration

      7,083 4.6 7,419 4.8

      Women

      Total, 16 years and older

      71,936 100.0 73,063 100.0

      Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

      611 0.8 628 0.9

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      94 0.1 108 0.1

      Construction

      971 1.3 1,102 1.5

      Manufacturing

      4,551 6.3 4,537 6.2

      Durable goods manufacturing

      2,463 3.4 2,463 3.4

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      2,088 2.9 2,074 2.8

      Wholesale and retail trade

      9,137 12.7 9,068 12.4

      Wholesale trade

      1,073 1.5 1,048 1.4

      Retail trade

      8,064 11.2 8,020 11.0

      Transportation and utilities

      1,955 2.7 2,084 2.9

      Transportation and warehousing

      1,681 2.3 1,796 2.5

      Utilities

      274 0.4 288 0.4

      Information

      1,132 1.6 1,118 1.5

      Financial activities

      5,542 7.7 5,598 7.7

      Finance and insurance

      4,049 5.6 4,058 5.6

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      1,494 2.1 1,540 2.1

      Professional and business services

      7,954 11.1 7,872 10.8

      Professional and technical services

      5,007 7.0 5,113 7.0

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      2,946 4.1 2,758 3.8

      Education and health services

      25,679 35.7 26,058 35.7

      Educational services

      9,408 13.1 9,501 13.0

      Health care and social assistance

      16,271 22.6 16,558 22.7

      Hospitals

      5,355 7.4 5,330 7.3

      Health services, except hospitals

      8,135 11.3 8,375 11.5

      Social assistance

      2,780 3.9 2,853 3.9

      Leisure and hospitality

      7,294 10.1 7,347 10.1

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      1,566 2.2 1,505 2.1

      Accommodation and food services

      5,728 8.0 5,843 8.0

      Other services

      3,868 5.4 4,148 5.7

      Other services, except private households

      3,265 4.5 3,423 4.7

      Private households

      602 0.8 725 1.0

      Public administration

      3,148 4.4 3,394 4.6

      Men

      Total, 16 years and older

      81,402 100.0 82,698 100.0

      Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

      1,843 2.3 1,797 2.2

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      654 0.8 676 0.8

      Construction

      9,722 11.9 10,079 12.2

      Manufacturing

      10,857 13.3 11,022 13.3

      Durable goods manufacturing

      7,235 8.9 7,368 8.9

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      3,622 4.4 3,654 4.4

      Wholesale and retail trade

      11,176 13.7 11,202 13.5

      Wholesale trade

      2,521 3.1 2,623 3.2

      Retail trade

      8,656 10.6 8,579 10.4

      Transportation and utilities

      6,204 7.6 6,468 7.8

      Transportation and warehousing

      5,129 6.3 5,411 6.5

      Utilities

      1,075 1.3 1,057 1.3

      Information

      1,771 2.2 1,801 2.2

      Financial activities

      4,940 6.1 5,051 6.1

      Finance and insurance

      3,239 4.0 3,317 4.0

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      1,700 2.1 1,734 2.1

      Professional and business services

      10,882 13.4 11,079 13.4

      Professional and technical services

      6,756 8.3 6,992 8.5

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      4,125 5.1 4,087 4.9

      Education and health services

      8,804 10.8 8,985 10.9

      Educational services

      4,355 5.3 4,410 5.3

      Health care and social assistance

      4,449 5.5 4,575 5.5

      Hospitals

      1,687 2.1 1,778 2.1

      Health services, except hospitals

      2,223 2.7 2,261 2.7

      Social assistance

      539 0.7 536 0.6

      Leisure and hospitality

      6,996 8.6 6,920 8.4

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      1,833 2.3 1,858 2.2

      Accommodation and food services

      5,163 6.3 5,062 6.1

      Other services

      3,617 4.4 3,595 4.3

      Other services, except private households

      3,562 4.4 3,542 4.3

      Private households

      55 0.1 53 0.1

      Public administration

      3,935 4.8 4,025 4.9

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Industry Total employed Percent women

      Total, 16 years and older

      155,761 46.9

      Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

      2,425 25.9

      Crop production

      1,230 26.7

      Animal production and aquaculture

      810 26.5

      Forestry, except logging

      43 -

      Logging

      112 5.9

      Fishing, hunting, and trapping

      54 12.8

      Support activities for agriculture and forestry

      176 33.7

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      784 13.8

      Oil and gas extraction

      78 19.1

      Coal mining

      64 6.2

      Metal ore mining

      30 -

      Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

      101 12.4

      Not specified type of mining

      6 -

      Support activities for mining

      504 14.8

      Construction

      11,181 9.9

      Manufacturing

      15,560 29.2

      Durable goods manufacturing

      9,831 25.1

      Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

      475 19.6

      Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

      22 -

      Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

      26 -

      Glass and glass product manufacturing

      148 23.8

      Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

      181 11.5

      Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

      99 19.5

      Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

      1,680 17.2

      Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

      268 11.8

      Aluminum production and processing

      59 29.3

      Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

      48 -

      Foundries

      81 18.2

      Metal forgings and stampings

      60 18.1

      Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

      41 -

      Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

      358 14.6

      Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

      295 13.5

      Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

      67 24.9

      Ordnance

      45 -

      Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

      327 18.9

      Not specified metal industries

      30 -

      Machinery manufacturing

      1,218 21.0

      Agricultural implement manufacturing

      114 26.6

      Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

      148 13.9

      Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

      71 28.7

      Metalworking machinery manufacturing

      128 14.7

      Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

      49 -

      Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

      690 22.0

      Not specified machinery manufacturing

      17 -

      Computers and electronic products manufacturing

      1,096 29.2

      Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

      173 24.0

      Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

      112 25.1

      Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

      206 33.1

      Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

      605 30.1

      Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

      402 31.2

      Household appliance manufacturing

      74 36.4

      Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

      328 30.1

      Transportation equipment manufacturing

      2,528 23.8

      Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

      1,432 25.0

      Aircraft and parts manufacturing

      805 23.9

      Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

      51 21.3

      Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

      28 -

      Ship and boat building

      171 13.6

      Other transportation equipment manufacturing

      42 -

      Wood products manufacturing

      449 16.5

      Sawmills and wood preservation

      147 13.2

      Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

      34 -

      Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

      38 -

      Miscellaneous wood products

      229 18.1

      Furniture and related product manufacturing

      421 25.1

      Miscellaneous manufacturing

      1,563 38.2

      Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

      627 40.5

      Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

      120 41.4

      Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

      533 37.9

      Not specified manufacturing industries

      283 32.6

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      5,729 36.2

      Food manufacturing

      1,825 41.4

      Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

      156 24.9

      Sugar and confectionery products

      88 46.1

      Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

      163 37.7

      Dairy product manufacturing

      176 25.3

      Animal slaughtering and processing

      512 39.1

      Retail bakeries

      248 69.1

      Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

      202 44.4

      Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

      206 40.6

      Not specified food industries

      73 34.7

      Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

      318 26.4

      Beverage manufacturing

      301 27.1

      Tobacco manufacturing

      18 -

      Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

      567 52.9

      Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

      11 -

      Fabric mills, except knitting mills

      90 40.0

      Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

      16 -

      Carpet and rug mills

      71 34.0

      Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

      87 52.2

      Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

      15 -

      Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

      215 66.5

      Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

      11 -

      Footwear manufacturing

      26 -

      Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

      25 -

      Paper manufacturing and printing

      875 29.3

      Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

      204 17.0

      Paperboard container manufacturing

      107 30.9

      Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

      71 19.6

      Printing and related support activities

      492 35.5

      Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

      193 16.0

      Petroleum refining

      163 14.8

      Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

      29 -

      Chemicals manufacturing

      1,426 35.7

      Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

      175 25.3

      Agricultural chemical manufacturing

      37 -

      Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

      563 48.6

      Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

      78 18.2

      Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

      149 43.9

      Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

      424 23.6

      Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

      526 26.2

      Plastics product manufacturing

      376 27.7

      Tire manufacturing

      62 15.2

      Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

      87 27.7

      Wholesale and retail trade

      20,270 44.7

      Wholesale trade

      3,671 28.5

      Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

      179 20.5

      Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

      70 34.0

      Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

      168 22.4

      Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

      331 34.7

      Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

      49 -

      Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

      221 27.5

      Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

      142 20.2

      Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

      357 26.3

      Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

      107 18.4

      Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

      72 36.5

      Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

      48 -

      Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

      223 48.9

      Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

      95 46.4

      Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

      887 24.3

      Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

      64 24.4

      Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

      137 16.3

      Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

      115 17.9

      Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

      55 29.1

      Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

      191 40.3

      Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

      95 36.8

      Not specified wholesale trade

      66 33.0

      Retail trade

      16,599 48.3

      Automobile dealers

      1,362 19.5

      Other motor vehicle dealers

      169 24.0

      Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

      499 19.3

      Furniture and home furnishings stores

      603 42.3

      Household appliance stores

      71 28.3

      Electronics stores

      510 31.6

      Building material and supplies dealers

      1,048 31.3

      Hardware stores

      206 31.0

      Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

      258 34.3

      Grocery stores

      2,788 48.4

      Specialty food stores

      218 51.1

      Beer, wine, and liquor stores

      122 31.9

      Pharmacies and drug stores

      949 64.9

      Health and personal care, except drug, stores

      397 69.8

      Gasoline stations

      478 50.7

      Clothing stores

      974 76.2

      Shoe stores

      150 54.2

      Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

      177 64.1

      Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

      478 43.4

      Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

      41 -

      Musical instrument and supplies stores

      36 -

      Book stores and news dealers

      106 66.8

      Department stores and discount stores

      1,921 60.3

      Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

      612 60.0

      Retail florists

      94 67.6

      Office supplies and stationery stores

      150 37.6

      Used merchandise stores

      247 66.8

      Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

      129 73.0

      Miscellaneous retail stores

      557 51.6

      Electronic shopping

      445 47.1

      Electronic auctions

      27 -

      Mail-order houses

      59 49.7

      Vending machine operators

      45 -

      Fuel dealers

      77 26.9

      Other direct selling establishments

      166 63.7

      Not specified retail trade

      428 54.7

      Transportation and utilities

      8,551 24.4

      Transportation and warehousing

      7,207 24.9

      Air transportation

      635 42.9

      Rail transportation

      224 7.2

      Water transportation

      87 25.1

      Truck transportation

      1,985 12.5

      Bus service and urban transit

      576 36.4

      Taxi and limousine service

      689 18.1

      Pipeline transportation

      64 7.5

      Scenic and sightseeing transportation

      38 -

      Services incidental to transportation

      850 25.8

      Postal Service

      619 44.6

      Couriers and messengers

      807 23.1

      Warehousing and storage

      634 31.5

      Utilities

      1,345 21.4

      Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

      718 22.3

      Natural gas distribution

      133 18.7

      Electric and gas, and other combinations

      129 22.8

      Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

      245 20.8

      Sewage treatment facilities

      96 17.5

      Not specified utilities

      24 -

      Information

      2,919 38.3

      Newspaper publishers

      178 46.4

      Periodical, book, and directory publishers

      198 58.3

      Software publishers

      86 33.5

      Motion pictures and video industries

      494 32.3

      Sound recording industries

      44 -

      Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

      550 32.7

      Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

      153 40.0

      Wired telecommunications carriers

      434 30.6

      Other telecommunications services

      439 26.9

      Data processing, hosting, and related services

      101 45.8

      Libraries and archives

      214 78.1

      Other information services

      29 -

      Financial activities

      10,649 52.6

      Finance and insurance

      7,376 55.0

      Banking and related activities

      1,992 58.2

      Savings institutions, including credit unions

      257 67.3

      Nondepository credit and related activities

      1,004 52.4

      Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

      1,325 39.9

      Insurance carriers and related activities

      2,797 59.7

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      3,273 47.0

      Real estate

      2,869 49.5

      Rental and leasing services

      405 29.5

      Automotive equipment rental and leasing

      185 32.5

      Video tape and disk rental

      8 -

      Other consumer goods rental

      106 31.7

      Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

      106 21.9

      Professional and business services

      18,950 41.5

      Professional and technical services

      12,105 42.2

      Legal services

      1,673 56.2

      Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

      1,131 60.0

      Architectural, engineering, and related services

      1,767 25.5

      Specialized design services

      405 57.7

      Computer systems design and related services

      3,339 27.2

      Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

      1,686 43.2

      Scientific research and development services

      616 45.6

      Advertising, public relations, and related services

      629 47.5

      Veterinary services

      404 84.3

      Other professional, scientific, and technical services

      456 55.6

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      6,845 40.3

      Management of companies and enterprises

      212 43.5

      Employment services

      954 55.3

      Business support services

      705 64.6

      Travel arrangements and reservation services

      290 61.4

      Investigation and security services

      839 24.5

      Services to buildings and dwellings

      1,604 55.8

      Landscaping services

      1,418 10.6

      Other administrative and other support services

      345 51.6

      Waste management and remediation services

      480 16.1

      Education and health services

      35,043 74.4

      Educational services

      13,910 68.3

      Elementary and secondary schools

      9,147 74.8

      Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

      3,819 53.6

      Business, technical, and trade schools and training

      99 51.4

      Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

      844 66.1

      Health care and social assistance

      21,133 78.4

      Hospitals

      7,108 75.0

      Health services, except hospitals

      10,636 78.7

      Offices of physicians

      1,595 77.3

      Offices of dentists

      873 84.0

      Offices of chiropractors

      145 58.6

      Offices of optometrists

      159 75.2

      Offices of other health practitioners

      355 79.0

      Outpatient care centers

      1,904 76.7

      Home health care services

      1,472 87.9

      Other health care services

      1,550 70.2

      Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

      1,652 84.2

      Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

      930 74.3

      Social assistance

      3,389 84.2

      Individual and family services

      1,608 77.9

      Community food and housing, and emergency services

      125 66.5

      Vocational rehabilitation services

      94 54.5

      Child day care services

      1,562 93.8

      Leisure and hospitality

      14,268 51.5

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      3,362 44.7

      Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

      915 40.6

      Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

      338 49.5

      Bowling centers

      38 -

      Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

      2,072 45.6

      Accommodation and food services

      10,905 53.6

      Accommodation

      1,467 58.2

      Traveler accommodation

      1,350 59.6

      Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

      117 41.3

      Food services and drinking places

      9,438 52.9

      Restaurants and other food services

      9,190 52.9

      Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

      248 52.6

      Other services

      7,742 53.6

      Other services, except private households

      6,965 49.1

      Repair and maintenance

      2,189 12.5

      Automotive repair and maintenance

      1,342 9.7

      Car washes

      194 15.7

      Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

      107 21.6

      Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

      328 8.0

      Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

      210 30.2

      Footwear and leather goods repair

      7 -

      Personal and laundry services

      2,676 74.1

      Barber shops

      123 23.8

      Beauty salons

      1,092 90.5

      Nail salons and other personal care services

      585 78.0

      Drycleaning and laundry services

      301 50.5

      Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

      122 38.8

      Other personal services

      454 68.1

      Membership associations and organizations

      2,101 55.6

      Religious organizations

      1,043 47.7

      Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

      815 67.1

      Labor unions

      71 40.8

      Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

      171 54.5

      Private households

      777 93.2

      Public administration

      7,419 45.8

      Executive offices and legislative bodies

      1,275 53.3

      Public finance activities

      340 65.4

      Other general government and support

      125 37.8

      Justice, public order, and safety activities

      2,827 34.0

      Administration of human resource programs

      1,097 73.9

      Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

      266 44.4

      Administration of economic programs and space research

      557 42.9

      National security and international affairs

      933 33.9

      Note: Dash indicates data not available.

      n.e.c.= not elsewhere classified.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic, or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual
      Industry White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

      55,759 10,073 4,644 11,594

      Percent

      100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

      Agriculture and related

      1.0 0.1 0.3 1.4

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

      Construction

      1.8 0.5 0.7 1.7

      Manufacturing

      6.2 5.4 8.6 7.3

      Durable goods manufacturing

      3.4 2.8 5.0 3.2

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      2.8 2.6 3.6 4.1

      Wholesale and retail trade

      12.6 11.4 10.7 14.1

      Wholesale trade

      1.5 1.0 1.5 1.9

      Retail trade

      11.1 10.4 9.2 12.2

      Transportation and utilities

      2.6 4.6 2.5 3.1

      Transportation and warehousing

      2.1 4.2 2.3 2.9

      Utilities

      0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2

      Information

      1.6 1.4 1.6 1.1

      Financial activities

      7.9 6.2 8.1 6.2

      Finance and insurance

      5.7 4.8 6.2 4.5

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      2.3 1.4 1.9 1.7

      Professional and business services

      11.0 8.6 13.7 10.9

      Professional and technical services

      7.3 3.9 11.3 4.3

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      3.7 4.8 2.3 6.6

      Education and health services

      35.5 40.3 31.5 29.5

      Educational services

      13.9 10.7 9.2 9.7

      Health care and social assistance

      21.6 29.5 22.3 19.8

      Hospitals

      7.1 8.2 9.0 4.8

      Health services, except hospitals

      10.8 15.8 10.5 10.2

      Social assistance

      3.7 5.5 2.8 4.8

      Leisure and hospitality

      9.9 9.7 9.9 14.2

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      2.1 1.5 1.7 1.7

      Accommodation and food services

      7.8 8.2 8.2 12.5

      Other services

      5.6 4.6 8.8 6.7

      Other services, except private households

      4.6 3.9 8.4 4.0

      Private households

      1.1 0.7 0.4 2.7

      Public administration

      4.2 7.2 3.5 3.6

      Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979-2018 annual averages
      Year and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Total

      1979

      $241 $248 $199 - $194

      1980

      262 269 212 - 209

      1981

      284 291 235 - 223

      1982

      302 310 245 - 240

      1983

      313 320 261 - 250

      1984

      326 336 269 - 259

      1985

      344 356 277 - 270

      1986

      359 371 291 - 277

      1987

      374 384 301 - 285

      1988

      385 395 314 - 290

      1989

      399 409 319 - 298

      1990

      412 424 329 - 304

      1991

      426 442 348 - 312

      1992

      440 458 357 - 321

      1993

      459 475 369 - 331

      1994

      467 484 371 - 324

      1995

      479 494 383 - 329

      1996

      490 506 387 - 339

      1997

      503 519 400 - 351

      1998

      523 545 426 - 370

      1999

      549 573 445 - 385

      2000

      576 590 474 $615 399

      2001

      596 610 491 639 417

      2002

      608 623 498 658 424

      2003

      620 636 514 693 440

      2004

      638 657 525 708 456

      2005

      651 672 520 753 471

      2006

      671 690 554 784 486

      2007

      695 716 569 830 503

      2008

      722 742 589 861 529

      2009

      739 757 601 880 541

      2010

      747 765 611 855 535

      2011

      756 775 615 866 549

      2012

      768 792 621 920 568

      2013

      776 802 629 942 578

      2014

      791 816 639 953 594

      2015

      809 835 641 993 604

      2016

      832 862 678 1,021 624

      2017

      860 890 682 1,043 655

      2018

      886 916 694 1,095 680

      Women

      1979

      $182 $184 $169 - $157

      1980

      201 203 185 - 172

      1981

      219 221 206 - 190

      1982

      239 242 217 - 203

      1983

      252 254 232 - 215

      1984

      265 268 241 - 223

      1985

      277 281 252 - 230

      1986

      291 294 264 - 241

      1987

      303 307 276 - 251

      1988

      315 318 288 - 260

      1989

      328 334 301 - 269

      1990

      346 353 308 - 278

      1991

      366 373 323 - 292

      1992

      380 387 335 - 302

      1993

      393 401 348 - 313

      1994

      399 408 346 - 305

      1995

      406 415 355 - 305

      1996

      418 428 362 - 316

      1997

      431 444 375 - 318

      1998

      456 468 400 - 337

      1999

      473 483 409 - 348

      2000

      493 502 429 $547 366

      2001

      512 522 454 563 388

      2002

      529 547 473 566 397

      2003

      552 567 491 598 410

      2004

      573 584 505 613 419

      2005

      585 596 499 665 429

      2006

      600 609 519 699 440

      2007

      614 626 533 731 473

      2008

      638 654 554 753 501

      2009

      657 669 582 779 509

      2010

      669 684 592 773 508

      2011

      684 703 595 751 518

      2012

      691 710 599 770 521

      2013

      706 722 606 819 541

      2014

      719 734 611 841 548

      2015

      726 743 615 877 566

      2016

      749 766 641 902 586

      2017

      770 795 657 903 603

      2018

      789 817 654 937 617

      Men

      1979

      $292 $298 $227 - $219

      1980

      313 320 244 - 234

      1981

      340 350 268 - 251

      1982

      364 375 278 - 269

      1983

      379 387 294 - 274

      1984

      392 401 303 - 287

      1985

      407 418 305 - 296

      1986

      419 433 319 - 299

      1987

      434 450 327 - 306

      1988

      449 465 348 - 308

      1989

      468 482 348 - 315

      1990

      481 494 361 - 318

      1991

      493 506 375 - 323

      1992

      501 514 380 - 339

      1993

      510 524 392 - 346

      1994

      522 547 400 - 343

      1995

      538 566 411 - 350

      1996

      557 580 412 - 356

      1997

      579 595 432 - 371

      1998

      598 615 468 - 390

      1999

      618 638 488 - 406

      2000

      641 662 510 $685 417

      2001

      670 689 529 732 440

      2002

      679 702 524 756 451

      2003

      695 715 555 772 464

      2004

      713 732 569 802 480

      2005

      722 743 559 825 489

      2006

      743 761 591 882 505

      2007

      766 788 600 936 520

      2008

      798 825 620 966 559

      2009

      819 845 621 952 569

      2010

      824 850 633 936 560

      2011

      832 856 653 970 571

      2012

      854 879 665 1,055 592

      2013

      860 884 664 1,059 594

      2014

      871 897 680 1,080 616

      2015

      895 920 680 1,129 631

      2016

      915 942 718 1,151 663

      2017

      941 971 710 1,207 690

      2018

      973 1,002 735 1,241 720

      Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

      1979

      62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

      1980

      64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

      1981

      64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

      1982

      65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

      1983

      66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

      1984

      67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

      1985

      68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

      1986

      69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

      1987

      69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

      1988

      70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

      1989

      70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

      1990

      71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

      1991

      74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

      1992

      75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

      1993

      77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

      1994

      76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

      1995

      75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

      1996

      75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

      1997

      74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

      1998

      76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

      1999

      76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

      2000

      76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

      2001

      76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

      2002

      77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

      2003

      79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

      2004

      80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

      2005

      81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

      2006

      80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

      2007

      80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

      2008

      79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

      2009

      80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

      2010

      81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

      2011

      82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

      2012

      80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

      2013

      82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

      2014

      82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

      2015

      81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

      2016

      81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

      2017

      81.8 81.9 92.5 74.8 87.4

      2018

      81.1 81.5 89.0 75.5 85.7

      Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

      Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages
      Educational attainment and gender Total employed (in thousands) Median weekly earnings

      Total

      Total

      105,138 $932

      Less than high school diploma

      6,999 553

      High school graduate or more

      98,139 972

      High school graduate, no college

      26,237 730

      Some college or associate's degree

      27,476 826

      Some college, no degree

      15,887 802

      Associate's degree

      11,589 862

      Occupational program

      4,912 859

      Academic program

      6,677 864

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      44,427 1,324

      Bachelor's degree

      27,660 1,198

      Master's degree

      12,444 1,434

      Professional degree

      1,750 1,884

      Doctoral degree

      2,573 1,825

      Women

      Total

      46,814 830

      Less than high school diploma

      2,238 469

      High school graduate or more

      44,576 858

      High school graduate, no college

      10,132 616

      Some college or associate's degree

      12,755 717

      Some college, no degree

      6,995 694

      Associate's degree

      5,760 746

      Occupational program

      2,200 716

      Academic program

      3,560 765

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      21,689 1,145

      Bachelor's degree

      13,208 1,041

      Master's degree

      6,587 1,248

      Professional degree

      799 1,562

      Doctoral degree

      1,094 1,599

      Men

      Total

      58,324 1,026

      Less than high school diploma

      4,761 607

      High school graduate or more

      53,563 1,091

      High school graduate, no college

      16,105 819

      Some college or associate's degree

      14,721 951

      Some college, no degree

      8,892 918

      Associate's degree

      5,829 994

      Occupational program

      2,711 993

      Academic program

      3,117 996

      Bachelor's degree and higher

      22,738 1,524

      Bachelor's degree

      14,451 1,384

      Master's degree

      5,856 1,718

      Professional degree

      951 2,107

      Doctoral degree

      1,479 1,919

      Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
      Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

      Total, full-time wage and salary workers

      115,567 $886 51,425 $789 64,142 $973 81.1

      Management, professional, and related occupations

      48,808 1,246 25,123 1,078 23,685 1,468 73.4

      Management, business, and financial operations occupations

      19,863 1,355 9,195 1,168 10,668 1,537 76.0

      Management occupations

      13,477 1,429 5,724 1,236 7,754 1,585 78.0

      Chief executives

      1,098 2,291 307 1,736 790 2,488 69.8

      General and operations managers

      939 1,338 283 1,139 656 1,427 79.8

      Legislators

      14 - 4 - 10 - -

      Advertising and promotions managers

      39 - 16 - 23 - -

      Marketing and sales managers

      963 1,567 447 1,362 517 1,852 73.5

      Public relations and fundraising managers

      61 1,415 43 - 18 - -

      Administrative services managers

      147 1,215 46 - 101 1,266 -

      Computer and information systems managers

      601 1,877 153 1,727 448 1,920 89.9

      Financial managers

      1,158 1,466 663 1,262 495 1,784 70.7

      Compensation and benefits managers

      21 - 16 - 5 - -

      Human resources managers

      294 1,381 221 1,330 73 1,761 75.5

      Training and development managers

      52 1,448 31 - 21 - -

      Industrial production managers

      243 1,465 55 1,296 188 1,573 82.4

      Purchasing managers

      222 1,362 99 1,229 123 1,431 85.9

      Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

      269 1,131 43 - 226 1,138 -

      Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

      119 945 21 - 99 1,010 -

      Construction managers

      625 1,431 53 1,202 572 1,467 81.9

      Education administrators

      857 1,381 563 1,245 294 1,563 79.7

      Architectural and engineering managers

      149 2,226 19 - 131 2,285 -

      Food service managers

      827 809 407 708 420 922 76.8

      Funeral service managers

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Gaming managers

      23 - 8 - 15 - -

      Lodging managers

      112 955 64 920 48 - -

      Medical and health services managers

      567 1,408 418 1,331 149 1,729 77.0

      Natural sciences managers

      8 - 4 - 4 - -

      Postmasters and mail superintendents

      22 - 15 - 8 - -

      Property, real estate, and community association managers

      390 1,018 208 927 181 1,148 80.7

      Social and community service managers

      363 1,141 251 1,057 112 1,336 79.1

      Emergency management directors

      9 - 3 - 6 - -

      Managers, all other

      3,285 1,525 1,263 1,341 2,022 1,628 82.4

      Business and financial operations occupations

      6,385 1,216 3,471 1,105 2,914 1,383 79.9

      Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

      31 - 18 - 13 - -

      Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

      10 - 3 - 7 - -

      Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

      147 878 65 880 82 878 100.2

      Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

      223 1,160 102 1,032 121 1,209 85.4

      Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

      334 998 189 913 145 1,167 78.2

      Compliance officers

      278 1,296 149 1,165 129 1,450 80.3

      Cost estimators

      109 1,165 14 - 95 1,208 -

      Human resources workers

      620 1,161 429 1,107 190 1,328 83.4

      Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

      48 - 31 - 17 - -

      Training and development specialists

      111 1,092 64 1,086 47 - -

      Logisticians

      127 1,019 46 - 81 1,131 -

      Management analysts

      635 1,532 279 1,437 356 1,642 87.5

      Meeting, convention, and event planners

      89 1,002 69 1,006 21 - -

      Fundraisers

      82 1,262 60 1,168 22 - -

      Market research analysts and marketing specialists

      299 1,246 174 1,148 125 1,503 76.4

      Business operations specialists, all other

      223 1,150 127 1,072 95 1,234 86.9

      Accountants and auditors

      1,615 1,209 969 1,108 646 1,404 78.9

      Appraisers and assessors of real estate

      47 - 22 - 24 - -

      Budget analysts

      52 1,351 35 - 17 - -

      Credit analysts

      27 - 14 - 12 - -

      Financial analysts

      261 1,470 122 1,197 138 1,599 74.9

      Personal financial advisors

      414 1,473 146 1,207 268 1,647 73.3

      Insurance underwriters

      122 1,268 71 1,032 51 1,413 73.0

      Financial examiners

      11 - 9 - 2 - -

      Credit counselors and loan officers

      332 1,168 177 948 155 1,443 65.7

      Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

      42 - 29 - 13 - -

      Tax preparers

      62 1,028 36 - 26 - -

      Financial specialists, all other

      35 - 22 - 13 - -

      Professional and related occupations

      28,945 1,176 15,929 1,024 13,017 1,425 71.9

      Computer and mathematical occupations

      4,755 1,539 1,184 1,345 3,571 1,604 83.9

      Computer and information research scientists

      20 - 4 - 16 - -

      Computer systems analysts

      580 1,521 222 1,246 358 1,647 75.7

      Information security analysts

      93 1,635 18 - 75 1,625 -

      Computer programmers

      428 1,591 91 1,445 338 1,662 86.9

      Software developers, applications and systems software

      1,611 1,864 327 1,644 1,283 1,894 86.8

      Web developers

      164 1,333 49 - 115 1,418 -

      Computer support specialists

      516 1,085 140 1,015 376 1,114 91.1

      Database administrators

      108 1,493 40 - 67 1,573 -

      Network and computer systems administrators

      192 1,430 37 - 155 1,478 -

      Computer network architects

      112 1,765 10 - 102 1,771 -

      Computer occupations, all other

      678 1,226 131 1,208 548 1,238 97.6

      Actuaries

      35 - 11 - 24 - -

      Mathematicians

      3 - 1 - 2 - -

      Operations research analysts

      125 1,418 58 1,299 66 1,566 83.0

      Statisticians

      85 1,437 43 - 41 - -

      Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

      5 - 2 - 3 - -

      Architecture and engineering occupations

      2,994 1,484 453 1,259 2,541 1,528 82.4

      Architects, except naval

      170 1,464 52 1,301 118 1,538 84.6

      Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

      35 - 7 - 28 - -

      Aerospace engineers

      145 1,788 16 - 129 1,836 -

      Agricultural engineers

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Biomedical engineers

      12 - 1 - 11 - -

      Chemical engineers

      65 1,858 8 - 57 1,858 -

      Civil engineers

      410 1,495 63 1,282 346 1,551 82.7

      Computer hardware engineers

      70 1,772 11 - 60 1,852 -

      Electrical and electronics engineers

      282 1,646 31 - 251 1,661 -

      Environmental engineers

      35 - 5 - 30 - -

      Industrial engineers, including health and safety

      245 1,499 54 1,163 191 1,571 74.0

      Marine engineers and naval architects

      15 - 0 - 15 - -

      Materials engineers

      42 - 10 - 32 - -

      Mechanical engineers

      313 1,562 31 - 282 1,581 -

      Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

      8 - 2 - 6 - -

      Nuclear engineers

      13 - 1 - 12 - -

      Petroleum engineers

      27 - 5 - 22 - -

      Engineers, all other

      528 1,575 65 1,356 463 1,610 84.2

      Drafters

      112 1,021 22 - 91 1,029 -

      Engineering technicians, except drafters

      398 1,129 66 934 332 1,154 80.9

      Surveying and mapping technicians

      63 984 3 - 60 995 -

      Life, physical, and social science occupations

      1,308 1,270 575 1,156 733 1,357 85.2

      Agricultural and food scientists

      30 - 13 - 16 - -

      Biological scientists

      101 1,250 46 - 55 1,164 -

      Conservation scientists and foresters

      17 - 8 - 9 - -

      Medical scientists

      160 1,319 81 1,156 80 1,416 81.6

      Life scientists, all other

      1 - 1 - 0 - -

      Astronomers and physicists

      14 - 0 - 14 - -

      Atmospheric and space scientists

      7 - 1 - 6 - -

      Chemists and materials scientists

      115 1,284 45 - 70 1,362 -

      Environmental scientists and geoscientists

      80 1,336 28 - 52 1,427 -

      Physical scientists, all other

      289 1,455 120 1,341 169 1,582 84.8

      Economists

      35 - 6 - 29 - -

      Survey researchers

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Psychologists

      134 1,331 99 1,255 35 - -

      Sociologists

      5 - 3 - 2 - -

      Urban and regional planners

      28 - 13 - 15 - -

      Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

      39 - 14 - 25 - -

      Agricultural and food science technicians

      31 - 7 - 24 - -

      Biological technicians

      17 - 7 - 10 - -

      Chemical technicians

      58 1,002 17 - 42 - -

      Geological and petroleum technicians

      11 - 4 - 7 - -

      Nuclear technicians

      11 - 3 - 8 - -

      Social science research assistants

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

      124 862 58 856 66 893 95.9

      Community and social service occupations

      2,223 913 1,469 886 754 984 90.0

      Counselors

      705 941 506 913 199 1,004 90.9

      Social workers

      753 907 611 897 141 958 93.6

      Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

      105 944 60 930 45 - -

      Social and human service assistants

      166 749 133 752 33 - -

      Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

      62 881 48 - 14 - -

      Clergy

      337 990 68 855 268 1,036 82.5

      Directors, religious activities and education

      51 927 25 - 27 - -

      Religious workers, all other

      45 - 18 - 27 - -

      Legal occupations

      1,466 1,467 815 1,243 651 1,910 65.1

      Lawyers

      853 1,947 344 1,762 509 2,202 80.0

      Judicial law clerks

      15 - 8 - 7 - -

      Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

      69 1,602 19 - 49 - -

      Paralegals and legal assistants

      413 948 359 953 54 917 103.9

      Miscellaneous legal support workers

      117 1,143 85 1,109 32 - -

      Education, training, and library occupations

      7,166 1,002 5,251 934 1,915 1,235 75.6

      Postsecondary teachers

      994 1,439 460 1,253 534 1,603 78.2

      Preschool and kindergarten teachers

      568 648 555 643 14 - -

      Elementary and middle school teachers

      3,030 1,010 2,410 982 620 1,148 85.5

      Secondary school teachers

      948 1,141 556 1,092 392 1,226 89.1

      Special education teachers

      324 1,039 281 1,042 43 - -

      Other teachers and instructors

      388 957 215 840 172 1,095 76.7

      Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

      37 - 20 - 17 - -

      Librarians

      127 927 98 910 29 - -

      Library technicians

      10 - 7 - 3 - -

      Teacher assistants

      615 556 553 550 62 584 94.2

      Other education, training, and library workers

      125 1,095 95 1,036 30 - -

      Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

      1,880 1,086 828 997 1,052 1,151 86.6

      Artists and related workers

      64 1,078 18 - 46 - -

      Designers

      684 1,060 327 932 357 1,169 79.7

      Actors

      7 - 2 - 5 - -

      Producers and directors

      147 1,224 49 - 98 1,476 -

      Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

      164 1,044 35 - 129 1,049 -

      Dancers and choreographers

      11 - 7 - 4 - -

      Musicians, singers, and related workers

      47 - 19 - 28 - -

      Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

      17 - 10 - 7 - -

      Announcers

      26 - 4 - 22 - -

      News analysts, reporters and correspondents

      59 1,012 30 - 29 - -

      Public relations specialists

      118 1,313 78 1,169 40 - -

      Editors

      124 1,112 67 1,138 57 1,104 103.1

      Technical writers

      60 1,318 35 - 25 - -

      Writers and authors

      110 1,233 68 1,036 42 - -

      Miscellaneous media and communication workers

      62 880 51 850 12 - -

      Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

      73 1,028 7 - 66 1,038 -

      Photographers

      68 904 16 - 51 1,006 -

      Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

      35 - 6 - 30 - -

      Media and communication equipment workers, all other

      4 - 0 - 4 - -

      Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

      7,154 1,140 5,354 1,078 1,800 1,383 77.9

      Chiropractors

      15 - 3 - 12 - -

      Dentists

      56 1,884 28 - 27 - -

      Dietitians and nutritionists

      70 967 63 940 8 - -

      Optometrists

      29 - 15 - 13 - -

      Pharmacists

      263 2,071 165 1,890 98 2,271 83.2

      Physicians and surgeons

      827 2,001 352 1,677 475 2,513 66.7

      Physician assistants

      118 1,752 80 1,646 37 - -

      Podiatrists

      4 - 1 - 3 - -

      Audiologists

      8 - 6 - 2 - -

      Occupational therapists

      80 1,283 64 1,252 16 - -

      Physical therapists

      209 1,395 139 1,387 71 1,410 98.4

      Radiation therapists

      13 - 8 - 6 - -

      Recreational therapists

      11 - 10 - 1 - -

      Respiratory therapists

      95 1,074 59 1,000 36 - -

      Speech-language pathologists

      105 1,215 100 1,214 6 - -

      Exercise physiologists

      2 - 2 - 0 - -

      Therapists, all other

      155 1,047 122 1,014 33 - -

      Veterinarians

      64 1,677 46 - 18 - -

      Registered nurses

      2,584 1,167 2,270 1,156 315 1,271 91.0

      Nurse anesthetists

      22 - 8 - 13 - -

      Nurse midwives

      2 - 2 - 0 - -

      Nurse practitioners

      158 1,894 134 1,891 24 - -

      Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

      10 - 4 - 6 - -

      Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

      290 893 215 911 75 819 111.2

      Dental hygienists

      75 1,047 72 1,055 3 - -

      Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

      269 1,140 172 1,061 97 1,232 86.1

      Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

      180 894 59 764 122 943 81.0

      Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

      542 691 431 655 112 807 81.2

      Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

      490 757 434 743 56 936 79.4

      Medical records and health information technicians

      140 765 129 739 11 - -

      Opticians, dispensing

      47 - 36 - 11 - -

      Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

      117 873 73 791 44 - -

      Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

      100 1,022 52 961 48 - -

      Service occupations

      16,288 569 8,340 511 7,948 641 79.7

      Healthcare support occupations

      2,595 561 2,235 548 361 661 82.9

      Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

      1,419 516 1,265 513 154 558 91.9

      Occupational therapy assistants and aides

      24 - 21 - 4 - -

      Physical therapist assistants and aides

      68 848 43 - 24 - -

      Massage therapists

      40 - 24 - 15 - -

      Dental assistants

      197 606 187 598 9 - -

      Medical assistants

      499 612 454 607 45 - -

      Medical transcriptionists

      23 - 18 - 4 - -

      Pharmacy aides

      28 - 23 - 5 - -

      Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

      49 - 39 - 10 - -

      Phlebotomists

      96 624 67 602 29 - -

      Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

      154 598 93 559 61 703 79.5

      Protective service occupations

      2,836 848 578 613 2,258 922 66.5

      First-line supervisors of correctional officers

      47 - 13 - 35 - -

      First-line supervisors of police and detectives

      85 1,460 12 - 74 1,461 -

      First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

      52 1,304 2 - 50 1,321 -

      First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

      74 839 16 - 58 886 -

      Firefighters

      295 1,126 14 - 280 1,133 -

      Fire inspectors

      18 - 2 - 16 - -

      Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

      394 742 105 646 289 811 79.7

      Detectives and criminal investigators

      157 1,331 35 - 122 1,317 -

      Fish and game wardens

      6 - 0 - 5 - -

      Parking enforcement workers

      4 - 4 - 0 - -

      Police and sheriff's patrol officers

      728 1,092 106 816 622 1,131 72.1

      Transit and railroad police

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Animal control workers

      13 - 8 - 5 - -

      Private detectives and investigators

      89 851 46 - 43 - -

      Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

      781 596 187 506 594 636 79.6

      Crossing guards

      28 - 6 - 22 - -

      Transportation security screeners

      33 - 6 - 27 - -

      Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

      31 - 16 - 15 - -

      Food preparation and serving related occupations

      4,394 501 2,184 473 2,210 533 88.7

      Chefs and head cooks

      365 615 65 562 300 624 90.1

      First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

      397 583 231 539 166 668 80.7

      Cooks

      1,325 486 521 437 804 518 84.4

      Food preparation workers

      473 463 267 446 206 486 91.8

      Bartenders

      275 581 151 560 124 601 93.2

      Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

      147 436 83 475 64 410 115.9

      Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

      41 - 22 - 19 - -

      Waiters and waitresses

      932 496 611 478 321 551 86.8

      Food servers, nonrestaurant

      106 484 74 475 32 - -

      Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

      118 447 58 408 59 500 81.6

      Dishwashers

      111 441 22 - 89 434 -

      Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

      102 471 78 473 24 - -

      Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

      2 - 1 - 1 - -

      Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

      3,695 551 1,322 477 2,373 604 79.0

      First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

      193 711 77 615 116 772 79.7

      First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

      95 770 2 - 93 774 -

      Janitors and building cleaners

      1,672 571 480 491 1,193 607 80.9

      Maids and housekeeping cleaners

      825 467 723 457 102 559 81.8

      Pest control workers

      75 688 4 - 70 725 -

      Grounds maintenance workers

      834 572 36 - 798 576 -

      Personal care and service occupations

      2,768 544 2,022 517 746 638 81.0

      First-line supervisors of gaming workers

      125 793 43 - 83 914 -

      First-line supervisors of personal service workers

      86 747 60 739 27 - -

      Animal trainers

      11 - 7 - 4 - -

      Nonfarm animal caretakers

      102 555 79 548 24 - -

      Gaming services workers

      73 654 36 - 37 - -

      Motion picture projectionists

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

      5 - 3 - 3 - -

      Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

      85 523 28 - 56 518 -

      Embalmers and funeral attendants

      11 - 3 - 8 - -

      Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

      27 - 7 - 20 - -

      Barbers

      48 - 15 - 34 - -

      Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

      309 545 287 548 22 - -

      Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

      258 523 206 512 52 615 83.3

      Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

      73 620 13 - 59 652 -

      Tour and travel guides

      22 - 9 - 13 - -

      Childcare workers

      437 500 405 492 32 - -

      Personal care aides

      786 500 654 493 132 555 88.8

      Recreation and fitness workers

      208 603 109 543 100 724 75.0

      Residential advisors

      29 - 18 - 11 - -

      Personal care and service workers, all other

      74 522 42 - 32 - -

      Sales and office occupations

      23,714 742 14,166 696 9,548 846 82.3

      Sales and related occupations

      10,077 798 4,455 651 5,621 949 68.6

      First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

      2,421 795 1,062 672 1,359 911 73.8

      First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

      893 1,153 305 1,054 588 1,199 87.9

      Cashiers

      1,390 465 1,013 463 377 468 98.9

      Counter and rental clerks

      82 729 30 - 51 769 -

      Parts salespersons

      109 702 11 - 98 718 -

      Retail salespersons

      1,860 657 716 543 1,144 764 71.1

      Advertising sales agents

      169 998 79 1,053 91 950 110.8

      Insurance sales agents

      466 859 261 809 205 1,048 77.2

      Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

      197 1,440 66 1,047 131 1,639 63.9

      Travel agents

      53 789 43 - 10 - -

      Sales representatives, services, all other

      427 1,230 113 933 315 1,345 69.4

      Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

      1,112 1,161 295 1,009 817 1,239 81.4

      Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

      15 - 11 - 3 - -

      Real estate brokers and sales agents

      528 1,019 291 883 236 1,264 69.9

      Sales engineers

      38 - 4 - 34 - -

      Telemarketers

      50 559 31 - 19 - -

      Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

      41 - 17 - 25 - -

      Sales and related workers, all other

      227 1,036 109 873 118 1,323 66.0

      Office and administrative support occupations

      13,637 717 9,711 711 3,926 738 96.3

      First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

      1,279 885 892 835 386 1,050 79.5

      Switchboard operators, including answering service

      21 - 19 - 3 - -

      Telephone operators

      29 - 22 - 6 - -

      Communications equipment operators, all other

      7 - 2 - 5 - -

      Bill and account collectors

      114 711 85 694 28 - -

      Billing and posting clerks

      417 721 361 725 56 664 109.2

      Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

      679 742 575 739 104 778 95.0

      Gaming cage workers

      7 - 6 - 1 - -

      Payroll and timekeeping clerks

      111 827 100 807 11 - -

      Procurement clerks

      30 - 14 - 16 - -

      Tellers

      240 584 206 584 34 - -

      Financial clerks, all other

      77 839 48 - 30 - -

      Brokerage clerks

      5 - 4 - 2 - -

      Correspondence clerks

      5 - 3 - 2 - -

      Court, municipal, and license clerks

      78 897 61 804 17 - -

      Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

      50 818 30 - 21 - -

      Customer service representatives

      1,904 683 1,226 680 678 689 98.7

      Eligibility interviewers, government programs

      67 887 53 841 14 - -

      File clerks

      110 650 86 624 23 - -

      Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

      85 520 56 505 29 - -

      Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

      114 702 96 686 18 - -

      Library assistants, clerical

      34 - 26 - 8 - -

      Loan interviewers and clerks

      115 827 99 797 16 - -

      New accounts clerks

      21 - 13 - 8 - -

      Order clerks

      57 659 29 - 28 - -

      Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

      53 816 45 - 7 - -

      Receptionists and information clerks

      934 605 853 606 81 593 102.2

      Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

      109 745 60 766 50 681 112.5

      Information and record clerks, all other

      95 733 71 724 24 - -

      Cargo and freight agents

      18 - 12 - 6 - -

      Couriers and messengers

      192 786 29 - 164 821 -

      Dispatchers

      270 783 162 725 108 926 78.3

      Meter readers, utilities

      24 - 2 - 22 - -

      Postal service clerks

      115 765 63 771 51 758 101.7

      Postal service mail carriers

      288 931 118 808 170 983 82.2

      Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

      53 980 32 - 22 - -

      Production, planning, and expediting clerks

      252 870 134 790 119 1,004 78.7

      Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

      524 632 160 590 365 654 90.2

      Stock clerks and order fillers

      988 562 359 570 629 558 102.2

      Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

      44 - 14 - 30 - -

      Secretaries and administrative assistants

      1,977 759 1,855 753 122 903 83.4

      Computer operators

      67 763 40 - 27 - -

      Data entry keyers

      224 655 173 643 52 730 88.1

      Word processors and typists

      53 858 43 - 9 - -

      Desktop publishers

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

      211 719 175 713 36 - -

      Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

      44 - 13 - 31 - -

      Office clerks, general

      925 697 797 701 128 670 104.6

      Office machine operators, except computer

      13 - 9 - 5 - -

      Proofreaders and copy markers

      7 - 4 - 2 - -

      Statistical assistants

      41 - 25 - 16 - -

      Office and administrative support workers, all other

      456 794 352 762 104 920 82.8

      Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

      11,546 824 516 638 11,030 834 76.5

      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

      850 581 183 483 667 602 80.2

      First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

      45 - 7 - 37 - -

      Agricultural inspectors

      18 - 6 - 13 - -

      Animal breeders

      2 - 0 - 2 - -

      Graders and sorters, agricultural products

      75 593 37 - 38 - -

      Miscellaneous agricultural workers

      641 552 130 474 512 578 82.0

      Fishers and related fishing workers

      12 - 0 - 12 - -

      Hunters and trappers

      3 - 0 - 3 - -

      Forest and conservation workers

      17 - 3 - 15 - -

      Logging workers

      36 - 0 - 36 - -

      Construction and extraction occupations

      6,414 808 191 785 6,223 809 97.0

      First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

      541 1,059 20 - 521 1,073 -

      Boilermakers

      16 - 0 - 16 - -

      Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

      102 763 2 - 100 761 -

      Carpenters

      973 756 20 - 953 759 -

      Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

      108 692 4 - 105 682 -

      Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

      46 - 0 - 46 - -

      Construction laborers

      1,470 717 49 - 1,421 717 -

      Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

      19 - 0 - 18 - -

      Pile-driver operators

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

      328 905 5 - 323 905 -

      Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

      125 704 1 - 124 707 -

      Electricians

      781 965 16 - 766 966 -

      Glaziers

      35 - 0 - 35 - -

      Insulation workers

      49 - 1 - 48 - -

      Painters, construction and maintenance

      380 679 20 - 360 679 -

      Paperhangers

      3 - 0 - 3 - -

      Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

      531 921 17 - 514 916 -

      Plasterers and stucco masons

      15 - 1 - 14 - -

      Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

      3 - 0 - 3 - -

      Roofers

      148 687 2 - 146 686 -

      Sheet metal workers

      129 881 2 - 127 882 -

      Structural iron and steel workers

      52 934 1 - 51 941 -

      Solar photovoltaic installers

      9 - 0 - 9 - -

      Helpers, construction trades

      68 620 1 - 67 622 -

      Construction and building inspectors

      82 996 14 - 68 1,015 -

      Elevator installers and repairers

      25 - 2 - 23 - -

      Fence erectors

      21 - 0 - 21 - -

      Hazardous materials removal workers

      30 - 3 - 27 - -

      Highway maintenance workers

      109 781 4 - 105 772 -

      Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

      12 - 0 - 12 - -

      Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

      6 - 0 - 6 - -

      Miscellaneous construction and related workers

      25 - 0 - 24 - -

      Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

      29 - 1 - 28 - -

      Earth drillers, except oil and gas

      23 - 0 - 23 - -

      Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

      14 - 0 - 14 - -

      Mining machine operators

      59 1,402 4 - 55 1,389 -

      Roof bolters, mining

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Roustabouts, oil and gas

      9 - 0 - 9 - -

      Helpers--extraction workers

      2 - 0 - 2 - -

      Other extraction workers

      35 - 0 - 34 - -

      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

      4,282 934 142 823 4,140 936 87.9

      First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

      270 1,087 15 - 255 1,111 -

      Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

      157 932 20 - 137 940 -

      Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

      125 1,131 18 - 108 1,134 -

      Avionics technicians

      11 - 1 - 10 - -

      Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

      22 - 2 - 20 - -

      Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

      12 - 2 - 10 - -

      Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

      29 - 0 - 29 - -

      Security and fire alarm systems installers

      47 - 0 - 47 - -

      Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

      155 1,117 7 - 147 1,141 -

      Automotive body and related repairers

      114 820 0 - 114 820 -

      Automotive glass installers and repairers

      22 - 1 - 21 - -

      Automotive service technicians and mechanics

      709 800 10 - 698 802 -

      Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

      358 942 5 - 352 943 -

      Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

      199 1,013 3 - 196 1,011 -

      Small engine mechanics

      28 - 0 - 28 - -

      Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

      68 611 3 - 65 612 -

      Control and valve installers and repairers

      20 - 2 - 18 - -

      Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

      384 890 3 - 381 891 -

      Home appliance repairers

      28 - 0 - 28 - -

      Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

      424 981 6 - 418 982 -

      Maintenance and repair workers, general

      456 870 16 - 439 874 -

      Maintenance workers, machinery

      23 - 0 - 23 - -

      Millwrights

      40 - 1 - 39 - -

      Electrical power-line installers and repairers

      129 1,300 5 - 124 1,292 -

      Telecommunications line installers and repairers

      196 1,014 9 - 187 1,026 -

      Precision instrument and equipment repairers

      46 - 6 - 39 - -

      Wind turbine service technicians

      2 - 0 - 2 - -

      Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

      25 - 2 - 23 - -

      Commercial divers

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Locksmiths and safe repairers

      18 - 0 - 18 - -

      Manufactured building and mobile home installers

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Riggers

      13 - 0 - 13 - -

      Signal and track switch repairers

      14 - 0 - 14 - -

      Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

      17 - 1 - 17 - -

      Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

      111 827 3 - 108 837 -

      Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

      15,210 707 3,279 561 11,932 762 73.6

      Production occupations

      7,668 723 2,041 575 5,627 793 72.5

      First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

      792 980 150 745 642 1,050 71.0

      Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

      6 - 1 - 5 - -

      Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

      110 605 53 518 57 706 73.4

      Engine and other machine assemblers

      7 - 2 - 5 - -

      Structural metal fabricators and fitters

      27 - 0 - 27 - -

      Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

      989 663 348 583 641 723 80.6

      Bakers

      151 549 89 533 61 565 94.3

      Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

      223 606 65 557 158 632 88.1

      Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

      3 - 0 - 3 - -

      Food batchmakers

      55 557 34 - 21 - -

      Food cooking machine operators and tenders

      8 - 5 - 3 - -

      Food processing workers, all other

      142 624 52 539 90 749 72.0

      Computer control programmers and operators

      106 882 12 - 94 890 -

      Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      17 - 4 - 12 - -

      Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      11 - 3 - 7 - -

      Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      58 745 5 - 53 766 -

      Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      6 - 0 - 6 - -

      Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      35 - 2 - 33 - -

      Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      7 - 0 - 7 - -

      Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      2 - 0 - 2 - -

      Machinists

      309 863 16 - 293 878 -

      Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

      17 - 1 - 16 - -

      Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      35 - 3 - 32 - -

      Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      4 - 0 - 4 - -

      Tool and die makers

      47 - 2 - 45 - -

      Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

      562 840 32 - 530 847 -

      Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      10 - 2 - 8 - -

      Layout workers, metal and plastic

      10 - 1 - 9 - -

      Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

      17 - 4 - 13 - -

      Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

      356 698 66 611 290 724 84.4

      Prepress technicians and workers

      14 - 3 - 11 - -

      Printing press operators

      137 754 26 - 111 804 -

      Print binding and finishing workers

      12 - 6 - 6 - -

      Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

      108 432 76 416 32 - -

      Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

      28 - 18 - 11 - -

      Sewing machine operators

      131 498 94 497 37 - -

      Shoe and leather workers and repairers

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Shoe machine operators and tenders

      6 - 3 - 2 - -

      Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

      43 - 24 - 19 - -

      Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

      7 - 0 - 7 - -

      Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

      5 - 3 - 2 - -

      Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

      3 - 1 - 2 - -

      Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Fabric and apparel patternmakers

      3 - 3 - 0 - -

      Upholsterers

      19 - 5 - 14 - -

      Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

      14 - 7 - 7 - -

      Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

      47 - 3 - 44 - -

      Furniture finishers

      15 - 2 - 13 - -

      Model makers and patternmakers, wood

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

      32 - 4 - 27 - -

      Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

      23 - 10 - 13 - -

      Woodworkers, all other

      11 - 0 - 11 - -

      Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

      33 - 1 - 32 - -

      Stationary engineers and boiler operators

      84 1,073 2 - 82 1,086 -

      Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

      99 943 5 - 94 940 -

      Miscellaneous plant and system operators

      35 - 0 - 35 - -

      Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

      65 894 8 - 57 899 -

      Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

      83 672 5 - 78 673 -

      Cutting workers

      56 595 12 - 43 - -

      Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

      17 - 3 - 14 - -

      Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

      20 - 4 - 15 - -

      Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

      756 771 267 679 490 868 78.2

      Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

      20 - 7 - 13 - -

      Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

      74 741 41 - 33 - -

      Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

      250 529 140 496 110 602 82.4

      Painting workers

      159 710 16 - 142 725 -

      Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

      15 - 4 - 11 - -

      Semiconductor processors

      1 - 0 - 1 - -

      Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

      8 - 3 - 5 - -

      Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

      6 - 0 - 6 - -

      Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

      4 - 0 - 4 - -

      Etchers and engravers

      8 - 2 - 6 - -

      Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

      28 - 0 - 27 - -

      Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

      20 - 4 - 16 - -

      Tire builders

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Helpers--production workers

      37 - 10 - 26 - -

      Production workers, all other

      992 678 263 566 729 725 78.1

      Transportation and material moving occupations

      7,542 689 1,237 538 6,305 724 74.3

      Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

      197 850 45 - 152 878 -

      Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

      98 1,743 7 - 91 1,837 -

      Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

      38 - 3 - 35 - -

      Flight attendants

      74 878 53 822 21 - -

      Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

      8 - 0 - 8 - -

      Bus drivers

      361 655 144 599 216 735 81.5

      Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

      2,791 817 155 559 2,636 829 67.4

      Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

      399 611 58 450 341 628 71.7

      Motor vehicle operators, all other

      39 - 5 - 34 - -

      Locomotive engineers and operators

      34 - 5 - 30 - -

      Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

      3 - 0 - 3 - -

      Railroad conductors and yardmasters

      54 1,132 4 - 50 1,143 -

      Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

      17 - 0 - 17 - -

      Sailors and marine oilers

      21 - 1 - 20 - -

      Ship and boat captains and operators

      30 - 1 - 29 - -

      Ship engineers

      7 - 0 - 7 - -

      Bridge and lock tenders

      5 - 0 - 5 - -

      Parking lot attendants

      61 575 8 - 54 575 -

      Automotive and watercraft service attendants

      70 570 14 - 56 575 -

      Transportation inspectors

      37 - 3 - 34 - -

      Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

      19 - 13 - 5 - -

      Other transportation workers

      19 - 0 - 18 - -

      Conveyor operators and tenders

      4 - 0 - 4 - -

      Crane and tower operators

      64 1,122 3 - 60 1,079 -

      Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

      19 - 0 - 19 - -

      Hoist and winch operators

      8 - 0 - 8 - -

      Industrial truck and tractor operators

      596 641 48 - 549 641 -

      Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

      232 538 40 - 192 536 -

      Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

      1,595 603 318 541 1,277 620 87.3

      Machine feeders and offbearers

      25 - 10 - 15 - -

      Packers and packagers, hand

      490 495 285 484 205 516 93.8

      Pumping station operators

      16 - 0 - 16 - -

      Refuse and recyclable material collectors

      63 524 8 - 55 536 -

      Mine shuttle car operators

      0 - 0 - 0 - -

      Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

      6 - 0 - 6 - -

      Material moving workers, all other

      41 - 4 - 37 - -

      Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.0-0-0--

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Industry Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
      Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

      Total, 16 years and older

      115,567 $886 51,425 $789 64,142 $973 81.1

      Agriculture and related industries

      1,176 623 241 540 934 662 81.6

      Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

      704 1,285 93 1,174 610 1,323 88.7

      Construction

      8,001 869 740 862 7,261 870 99.1

      Manufacturing

      14,239 918 3,915 746 10,324 988 75.5

      Durable goods manufacturing

      9,110 952 2,176 789 6,935 1,005 78.5

      Nondurable goods manufacturing

      5,129 858 1,739 701 3,389 952 73.6

      Wholesale and retail trade

      14,012 722 5,619 630 8,393 796 79.1

      Wholesale trade

      3,146 918 871 833 2,274 960 86.8

      Retail trade

      10,866 671 4,748 606 6,119 746 81.2

      Transportation and utilities

      6,924 916 1,620 786 5,303 971 80.9

      Transportation and warehousing

      5,609 855 1,340 737 4,269 897 82.2

      Utilities

      1,315 1,232 280 1,086 1,034 1,265 85.8

      Information

      2,349 1,159 848 993 1,501 1,270 78.2

      Financial activities

      8,570 1,047 4,575 907 3,995 1,336 67.9

      Finance and insurance

      6,503 1,128 3,656 923 2,847 1,500 61.5

      Real estate and rental and leasing

      2,067 899 919 846 1,148 944 89.6

      Professional and business services

      13,837 1,092 5,460 918 8,377 1,229 74.7

      Professional and technical services

      9,096 1,362 3,693 1,104 5,403 1,550 71.2

      Management, administrative, and waste services

      4,740 669 1,767 628 2,974 694 90.5

      Education and health services

      26,645 904 19,570 847 7,076 1,101 76.9

      Educational services

      10,799 993 7,317 945 3,482 1,128 83.8

      Health care and social assistance

      15,846 829 12,253 773 3,593 1,070 72.2

      Leisure and hospitality

      7,783 587 3,629 533 4,154 632 84.3

      Arts, entertainment, and recreation

      1,763 733 703 663 1,061 790 83.9

      Accommodation and food services

      6,019 551 2,926 510 3,094 598 85.3

      Other services

      4,459 734 2,081 636 2,378 843 75.4

      Other services, except private households

      4,090 762 1,743 674 2,347 847 79.6

      Private households

      368 505 338 502 31 - -

      Public administration

      6,870 1,058 3,034 942 3,836 1,155 81.6

      Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 20. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Characteristic Workers paid hourly rates
      Total Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
      Total Percentage of hourly paid workers At prevailing federal minimum wage Below prevailing federal minimum wage

      Age and gender

      Total, 16 years and older

      81,915 1,711 2.1 434 1,276

      16 to 24 years

      15,963 805 5.0 271 534

      25 years and older

      65,952 905 1.4 163 742

      Women, 16 years and older

      41,223 1,078 2.6 267 812

      16 to 24 years

      7,969 504 6.3 156 348

      25 years and older

      33,254 575 1.7 110 464

      Men, 16 years and older

      40,691 632 1.6 168 464

      16 to 24 years

      7,994 301 3.8 115 186

      25 years and older

      32,698 331 1.0 52 278

      Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity[¹]

      White

      62,204 1,242 2.0 283 958

      Women

      30,695 808 2.6 182 626

      Men

      31,509 434 1.4 101 333

      Black or African American

      12,135 313 2.6 114 198

      Women

      6,598 175 2.7 63 113

      Men

      5,537 137 2.5 52 85

      Asian

      4,130 69 1.7 16 53

      Women

      2,221 46 2.1 10 36

      Men

      1,909 23 1.2 6 17

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      17,452 324 1.9 78 246

      Women

      7,909 194 2.4 52 141

      Men

      9,543 131 1.4 26 105

      Full- and part-time status[²]

      Full-time workers

      61,650 742 1.2 121 621

      Women

      27,913 454 1.6 76 377

      Men

      33,736 288 0.9 45 244

      Part-time workers

      20,155 965 4.8 312 653

      Women

      13,260 624 4.7 190 434

      Men

      6,895 341 4.9 122 219

      [¹] Estimates for the race groups--White, Black or African American, and Asian--do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

      [²] The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

      Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 21. Employed people, by full- and part-time status and gender, 1968–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Year and gender Total employed Usually full time Usually part time Percentage usually full time Percentage usually part time

      Total

      1968

      75,920 65,277 10,644 86.0 14.0

      1969

      77,902 66,596 11,306 85.5 14.5

      1970

      78,678 66,753 11,925 84.8 15.2

      1971

      79,367 66,973 12,393 84.4 15.6

      1972

      82,153 69,214 12,939 84.3 15.7

      1973

      85,064 71,803 13,262 84.4 15.6

      1974

      86,794 73,093 13,701 84.2 15.8

      1975

      85,846 71,586 14,260 83.4 16.6

      1976

      88,752 73,964 14,788 83.3 16.7

      1977

      92,017 76,625 15,391 83.3 16.7

      1978

      96,048 80,193 15,855 83.5 16.5

      1979

      98,824 82,654 16,171 83.6 16.4

      1980

      99,303 82,562 16,740 83.1 16.9

      1981

      100,397 83,243 17,154 82.9 17.1

      1982

      99,526 81,421 18,106 81.8 18.2

      1983

      100,834 82,322 18,511 81.6 18.4

      1984

      105,005 86,544 18,462 82.4 17.6

      1985

      107,150 88,534 18,615 82.6 17.4

      1986

      109,597 90,529 19,069 82.6 17.4

      1987

      112,440 92,957 19,483 82.7 17.3

      1988

      114,968 95,214 19,754 82.8 17.2

      1989

      117,342 97,369 19,973 83.0 17.0

      1990

      118,793 98,666 20,128 83.1 16.9

      1991

      117,718 97,190 20,528 82.6 17.4

      1992

      118,492 97,664 20,828 82.4 17.6

      1993

      120,259 99,114 21,145 82.4 17.6

      1994

      123,060 99,772 23,288 81.1 18.9

      1995

      124,900 101,679 23,220 81.4 18.6

      1996

      126,708 103,537 23,170 81.7 18.3

      1997

      129,558 106,334 23,224 82.1 17.9

      1998

      131,463 108,202 23,261 82.3 17.7

      1999

      133,488 110,302 23,186 82.6 17.4

      2000

      136,891 113,846 23,044 83.2 16.8

      2001

      136,933 113,573 23,361 82.9 17.1

      2002

      136,485 112,700 23,785 82.6 17.4

      2003

      137,736 113,324 24,412 82.3 17.7

      2004

      139,252 114,518 24,734 82.2 17.8

      2005

      141,730 117,016 24,714 82.6 17.4

      2006

      144,427 119,688 24,739 82.9 17.1

      2007

      146,047 121,091 24,956 82.9 17.1

      2008

      145,362 120,030 25,332 82.6 17.4

      2009

      139,877 112,634 27,244 80.5 19.5

      2010

      139,064 111,714 27,350 80.3 19.7

      2011

      139,869 112,556 27,313 80.5 19.5

      2012

      142,469 114,809 27,661 80.6 19.4

      2013

      143,929 116,314 27,615 80.8 19.2

      2014

      146,305 118,718 27,587 81.1 18.9

      2015

      148,834 121,492 27,341 81.6 18.4

      2016

      151,436 123,761 27,675 81.7 18.3

      2017

      153,337 125,967 27,370 82.2 17.8

      2018

      155,761 128,572 27,189 82.5 17.5

      Women

      1968

      27,807 20,893 6,914 75.1 24.9

      1969

      29,084 21,781 7,303 74.9 25.1

      1970

      29,688 21,929 7,758 73.9 26.1

      1971

      29,976 21,950 8,026 73.2 26.8

      1972

      31,257 22,842 8,416 73.1 26.9

      1973

      32,715 23,960 8,756 73.2 26.8

      1974

      33,769 24,714 9,055 73.2 26.8

      1975

      33,989 24,598 9,391 72.4 27.6

      1976

      35,615 25,814 9,799 72.5 27.5

      1977

      37,289 27,076 10,213 72.6 27.4

      1978

      39,569 28,912 10,658 73.1 26.9

      1979

      41,217 30,227 10,990 73.3 26.7

      1980

      42,117 30,845 11,270 73.2 26.8

      1981

      43,000 31,337 11,664 72.9 27.1

      1982

      43,256 31,086 12,170 71.9 28.1

      1983

      44,047 31,679 12,367 71.9 28.1

      1984

      45,915 33,473 12,441 72.9 27.1

      1985

      47,259 34,672 12,587 73.4 26.6

      1986

      48,706 35,845 12,862 73.6 26.4

      1987

      50,334 37,210 13,124 73.9 26.1

      1988

      51,696 38,398 13,298 74.3 25.7

      1989

      53,027 39,484 13,544 74.5 25.5

      1990

      53,689 40,165 13,524 74.8 25.2

      1991

      53,496 39,783 13,713 74.4 25.6

      1992

      54,052 40,301 13,751 74.6 25.4

      1993

      54,910 40,991 13,919 74.7 25.3

      1994

      56,610 40,940 15,670 72.3 27.7

      1995

      57,523 41,743 15,779 72.6 27.4

      1996

      58,501 42,776 15,725 73.1 26.9

      1997

      59,873 44,076 15,797 73.6 26.4

      1998

      60,771 45,014 15,757 74.1 25.9

      1999

      62,042 46,372 15,670 74.7 25.3

      2000

      63,586 47,916 15,670 75.4 24.6

      2001

      63,737 47,950 15,788 75.2 24.8

      2002

      63,582 47,494 16,088 74.7 25.3

      2003

      64,404 47,946 16,459 74.4 25.6

      2004

      64,728 48,073 16,654 74.3 25.7

      2005

      65,757 49,158 16,598 74.8 25.2

      2006

      66,925 50,380 16,545 75.3 24.7

      2007

      67,792 51,056 16,736 75.3 24.7

      2008

      67,876 51,178 16,698 75.4 24.6

      2009

      66,208 48,683 17,525 73.5 26.5

      2010

      65,705 48,214 17,491 73.4 26.6

      2011

      65,579 48,224 17,355 73.5 26.5

      2012

      66,914 49,331 17,583 73.7 26.3

      2013

      67,577 49,979 17,598 74.0 26.0

      2014

      68,613 50,889 17,724 74.2 25.8

      2015

      69,703 52,142 17,561 74.8 25.2

      2016

      70,868 53,194 17,674 75.1 24.9

      2017

      71,936 54,396 17,539 75.6 24.4

      2018

      73,063 55,638 17,425 76.2 23.8

      Men

      1968

      48,114 44,384 3,730 92.2 7.8

      1969

      48,818 44,815 4,003 91.8 8.2

      1970

      48,990 44,825 4,166 91.5 8.5

      1971

      49,390 45,023 4,367 91.2 8.8

      1972

      50,896 46,373 4,523 91.1 8.9

      1973

      52,349 47,843 4,507 91.4 8.6

      1974

      53,024 48,378 4,646 91.2 8.8

      1975

      51,857 46,988 4,870 90.6 9.4

      1976

      53,138 48,150 4,988 90.6 9.4

      1977

      54,728 49,551 5,178 90.5 9.5

      1978

      56,479 51,281 5,198 90.8 9.2

      1979

      57,607 52,427 5,180 91.0 9.0

      1980

      57,186 51,717 5,471 90.4 9.6

      1981

      57,397 51,906 5,492 90.4 9.6

      1982

      56,271 50,334 5,937 89.4 10.6

      1983

      56,787 50,643 6,145 89.2 10.8

      1984

      59,091 53,070 6,020 89.8 10.2

      1985

      59,891 53,862 6,028 89.9 10.1

      1986

      60,892 54,685 6,207 89.8 10.2

      1987

      62,107 55,746 6,360 89.8 10.2

      1988

      63,273 56,816 6,457 89.8 10.2

      1989

      64,315 57,885 6,430 90.0 10.0

      1990

      65,104 58,501 6,604 89.9 10.1

      1991

      64,223 57,407 6,815 89.4 10.6

      1992

      64,440 57,363 7,077 89.0 11.0

      1993

      65,349 58,123 7,226 88.9 11.1

      1994

      66,450 58,832 7,617 88.5 11.5

      1995

      67,377 59,936 7,441 89.0 11.0

      1996

      68,207 60,762 7,445 89.1 10.9

      1997

      69,685 62,258 7,427 89.3 10.7

      1998

      70,693 63,189 7,504 89.4 10.6

      1999

      71,446 63,930 7,516 89.5 10.5

      2000

      73,305 65,930 7,375 89.9 10.1

      2001

      73,196 65,623 7,573 89.7 10.3

      2002

      72,903 65,205 7,697 89.4 10.6

      2003

      73,332 65,379 7,953 89.2 10.8

      2004

      74,524 66,444 8,080 89.2 10.8

      2005

      75,973 67,858 8,115 89.3 10.7

      2006

      77,502 69,307 8,194 89.4 10.6

      2007

      78,254 70,035 8,220 89.5 10.5

      2008

      77,486 68,853 8,634 88.9 11.1

      2009

      73,670 63,951 9,719 86.8 13.2

      2010

      73,359 63,501 9,858 86.6 13.4

      2011

      74,290 64,333 9,957 86.6 13.4

      2012

      75,555 65,477 10,078 86.7 13.3

      2013

      76,353 66,335 10,017 86.9 13.1

      2014

      77,692 67,829 9,863 87.3 12.7

      2015

      79,131 69,351 9,780 87.6 12.4

      2016

      80,568 70,567 10,002 87.6 12.4

      2017

      81,402 71,571 9,831 87.9 12.1

      2018

      82,698 72,935 9,764 88.2 11.8

      Note: Full time is 35 or more hours per week; part time is 1 to 34 hours per week. Data for 1994 and subsequent years are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the Current Population Survey.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 22. Average weekly hours at work in all industries and in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2018 annual averages
      Year All industries Nonagricultural industries
      Total Women Men Total Women Men

      1976

      38.7 34.1 41.7 38.4 34.1 41.4

      1977

      38.8 34.2 41.9 38.5 34.2 41.6

      1978

      39.0 34.5 42.1 38.7 34.4 41.8

      1979

      38.9 34.5 42.0 38.6 34.4 41.7

      1980

      38.5 34.5 41.5 38.3 34.4 41.2

      1981

      38.1 34.1 41.1 37.9 34.1 40.7

      1982

      38.0 34.1 40.9 37.7 34.0 40.6

      1983

      38.3 34.5 41.2 38.1 34.4 41.0

      1984

      38.8 34.9 41.8 38.6 34.9 41.5

      1985

      39.0 35.2 42.0 38.9 35.2 41.8

      1986

      39.1 35.4 42.1 38.9 35.3 41.9

      1987

      39.0 35.3 42.0 38.8 35.3 41.8

      1988

      39.4 35.7 42.4 39.3 35.7 42.2

      1989

      39.6 35.8 42.6 39.4 35.8 42.4

      1990

      39.4 35.8 42.3 39.3 35.8 42.1

      1991

      39.2 35.8 42.0 39.1 35.8 41.9

      1992

      38.9 35.6 41.7 38.8 35.6 41.6

      1993

      39.4 36.0 42.2 39.3 36.0 42.1

      1994

      39.2 35.5 42.2 39.1 35.6 42.1

      1995

      39.3 35.6 42.3 39.2 35.7 42.2

      1996

      39.3 35.7 42.3 39.2 35.7 42.2

      1997

      39.5 36.0 42.4 39.4 36.0 42.3

      1998

      39.3 35.8 42.2 39.2 35.9 42.2

      1999

      39.6 36.2 42.4 39.5 36.2 42.4

      2000

      39.7 36.4 42.5 39.6 36.4 42.4

      2001

      39.2 36.1 41.9 39.2 36.1 41.8

      2002

      39.2 36.0 41.8 39.1 36.1 41.7

      2003

      39.0 35.9 41.7 39.0 35.9 41.6

      2004

      39.0 35.9 41.7 39.0 35.9 41.6

      2005

      39.2 36.1 41.8 39.1 36.1 41.7

      2006

      39.2 36.2 41.8 39.2 36.2 41.7

      2007

      39.2 36.1 41.7 39.1 36.1 41.6

      2008

      38.9 36.1 41.3 38.8 36.1 41.2

      2009

      37.9 35.3 40.2 37.8 35.3 40.1

      2010

      38.2 35.5 40.5 38.1 35.6 40.4

      2011

      38.3 35.6 40.6 38.2 35.6 40.6

      2012

      38.5 35.8 40.8 38.4 35.8 40.7

      2013

      38.6 36.0 40.9 38.5 36.0 40.8

      2014

      38.6 35.9 41.0 38.6 35.9 40.9

      2015

      38.6 35.9 40.9 38.5 35.9 40.8

      2016

      38.7 36.2 41.0 38.7 36.2 40.9

      2017

      38.7 36.2 40.9 38.6 36.2 40.8

      2018

      38.9 36.4 41.1 38.9 36.4 41.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 23. Work experience of the population, by gender and full- and part-time status, selected years, 1970–2017 (Percent distribution)
      Year and gender Population (in thousands) Worked during the year Percent distribution by work experience
      Total (in thousands) Percentage of population Total Usually work full time Usually work part time
      Total 50 to 52 weeks 1 to 49 weeks Total 50 to 52 weeks 1 to 49 weeks

      Total

      1970

      138,953 93,850 67.5 100.0 79.4 55.6 23.8 20.6 6.7 13.9

      1975

      153,180 102,603 67.0 100.0 78.9 54.3 24.6 21.2 7.5 13.7

      1980

      169,452 115,752 68.3 100.0 78.5 56.1 22.4 21.4 7.7 13.7

      1985

      179,944 123,466 68.6 100.0 78.2 58.7 19.5 21.9 8.3 13.6

      1990

      189,238 132,562 70.1 100.0 78.8 60.4 18.4 21.3 8.7 12.6

      1995

      199,925 138,971 69.5 100.0 78.6 62.9 15.7 21.3 9.1 12.2

      2000

      214,292 150,787 70.4 100.0 80.4 66.7 13.8 19.5 9.3 10.2

      2005

      227,975 154,322 67.7 100.0 80.3 67.5 12.8 19.7 10.0 9.7

      2006

      231,033 156,658 67.8 100.0 80.9 68.4 12.5 19.1 9.7 9.4

      2007

      232,995 157,653 67.7 100.0 80.9 68.4 12.5 19.1 9.8 9.3

      2008

      235,086 157,472 67.0 100.0 79.5 65.6 13.9 20.5 10.5 10.0

      2009

      237,158 153,929 64.9 100.0 78.3 64.0 14.3 21.7 11.3 10.4

      2010

      238,999 152,320 63.7 100.0 78.2 64.7 13.5 21.8 11.2 10.6

      2011

      242,602 153,479 63.3 100.0 78.6 65.8 12.8 21.4 11.2 10.2

      2012

      244,993 156,194 63.8 100.0 78.4 65.5 12.9 21.6 11.2 10.4

      2013

      247,258 156,987 63.5 100.0 79.0 66.9 12.1 21.0 10.9 10.1

      2014

      250,080 159,056 63.6 100.0 79.6 67.9 11.7 20.4 10.8 9.6

      2015

      252,766 162,329 64.2 100.0 79.6 68.0 11.6 20.4 10.6 9.8

      2016

      254,413 163,638 64.3 100.0 79.8 68.8 11.0 20.2 10.7 9.6

      2017

      257,097 165,163 64.2 100.0 80.4 69.5 10.9 19.6 10.6 9.0

      Women

      1970

      73,657 38,809 52.7 100.0 67.9 40.7 27.2 32.2 10.1 22.1

      1975

      80,834 43,511 53.8 100.0 67.1 41.4 25.7 32.8 11.7 21.1

      1980

      89,259 51,492 57.7 100.0 67.7 44.7 23.0 32.3 11.9 20.4

      1985

      94,490 56,165 59.4 100.0 68.1 48.9 19.2 31.8 12.3 19.5

      1990

      98,970 61,494 62.1 100.0 69.8 51.5 18.3 30.2 12.8 17.4

      1995

      104,058 65,304 62.8 100.0 70.2 54.3 15.9 29.7 13.3 16.4

      2000

      111,440 71,341 64.0 100.0 72.9 58.4 14.5 27.1 13.4 13.7

      2005

      117,814 72,309 61.4 100.0 72.7 59.9 12.8 27.3 14.1 13.2

      2006

      119,300 73,527 61.6 100.0 73.0 60.7 12.3 27.0 14.1 12.9

      2007

      120,300 74,115 61.6 100.0 73.6 61.5 12.1 26.4 14.2 12.2

      2008

      121,328 74,363 61.3 100.0 72.2 59.3 12.9 27.8 15.0 12.9

      2009

      122,339 72,855 59.6 100.0 71.5 59.3 12.2 28.5 15.8 12.7

      2010

      123,012 71,980 58.5 100.0 71.5 59.4 12.1 28.5 15.6 12.9

      2011

      125,619 72,976 58.1 100.0 71.7 59.8 11.9 28.3 15.7 12.6

      2012

      126,791 74,051 58.4 100.0 71.5 59.4 12.1 28.5 15.2 13.3

      2013

      127,863 74,397 58.2 100.0 71.8 60.5 11.3 28.2 15.2 13.0

      2014

      129,342 75,416 58.3 100.0 72.7 61.2 11.5 27.3 14.7 12.6

      2015

      130,656 76,811 58.8 100.0 73.0 61.4 11.6 27.0 14.6 12.4

      2016

      131,469 77,574 59.0 100.0 73.1 62.2 10.9 26.9 14.6 12.3

      2017

      132,766 78,016 58.8 100.0 73.5 63.1 10.4 26.5 14.9 11.6

      Men

      1970

      65,296 55,041 84.3 100.0 87.6 66.1 21.5 12.4 4.4 8.0

      1975

      72,346 59,091 81.7 100.0 87.5 63.8 23.7 12.5 4.4 8.1

      1980

      80,193 64,260 80.1 100.0 87.2 65.2 22.0 12.8 4.4 8.4

      1985

      85,454 67,301 78.8 100.0 86.5 66.8 19.7 13.5 4.8 8.7

      1990

      90,269 71,068 78.7 100.0 86.4 68.0 18.4 13.5 5.1 8.4

      1995

      95,867 73,667 76.8 100.0 86.2 70.6 15.6 13.9 5.5 8.4

      2000

      102,853 79,446 77.2 100.0 87.5 74.2 13.2 12.6 5.5 7.1

      2005

      110,161 82,013 74.4 100.0 87.0 74.2 12.8 13.0 6.3 6.7

      2006

      111,733 83,131 74.4 100.0 87.8 75.2 12.6 12.2 5.7 6.5

      2007

      112,695 83,538 74.1 100.0 87.4 74.6 12.8 12.6 5.9 6.7

      2008

      113,758 83,109 73.1 100.0 86.0 71.2 14.8 14.0 6.5 7.5

      2009

      114,820 81,073 70.6 100.0 84.4 68.3 16.1 15.6 7.3 8.3

      2010

      115,986 80,341 69.3 100.0 84.3 69.4 14.9 15.7 7.3 8.4

      2011

      116,984 80,503 68.8 100.0 84.8 71.2 13.6 15.2 7.2 8.0

      2012

      118,202 82,143 69.5 100.0 84.5 71.0 13.5 15.5 7.5 8.0

      2013

      119,395 82,590 69.2 100.0 85.5 72.7 12.8 14.5 7.1 7.4

      2014

      120,738 83,640 69.3 100.0 85.7 73.9 11.8 14.3 7.2 7.1

      2015

      122,110 85,518 70.0 100.0 85.6 73.9 11.7 14.4 7.0 7.4

      2016

      122,944 86,063 70.0 100.0 85.8 74.7 11.1 14.2 7.1 7.0

      2017

      124,331 87,147 70.1 100.0 86.6 75.3 11.3 13.4 6.7 6.7

      Note: These data reflect work experience for the entire year.

      The 2013 data in this report, collected in the 2014 ASEC, are based on fewer sample responses than in recent years. Approximately three-eighths of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample was used to test redesigned questions on income and health insurance coverage; this portion of the sample was not used to generate the estimates in this table.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements, 1971-2018.

      Table 24A. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Married-couple families
      Total No earners One earner Two or more earners
      Total Husband only Wife only Other family member Total Husband and wife Husband and other family member Wife and other family member Husband and wife are not earners

      1967

      43,292 2,943 16,490 15,429 716 345 23,859 18,888 4,639 - -

      1968

      43,842 2,888 16,375 15,310 730 335 24,579 19,743 4,522 - -

      1969

      44,436 3,022 16,268 15,133 797 339 25,145 20,327 4,517 - -

      1970

      44,832 3,252 16,117 14,931 867 320 25,464 20,510 4,622 - -

      1971

      45,939 3,471 16,847 15,502 1,004 340 25,621 20,641 4,651 - -

      1972

      46,594 3,632 16,787 15,387 1,003 398 26,175 21,279 4,553 - -

      1973

      47,185 4,027 16,080 14,547 1,110 423 27,078 22,152 4,535 - -

      1974

      47,438 4,325 15,795 14,122 1,216 457 27,319 22,451 4,442 - -

      1975

      47,878 4,943 16,217 14,343 1,394 481 26,717 22,338 3,861 - -

      1976

      48,150 4,962 15,630 13,690 1,424 516 27,559 23,104 3,829 - -

      1977

      48,131 5,177 15,119 13,153 1,456 512 27,835 23,474 3,812 - -

      1978

      48,532 5,226 14,456 12,434 1,509 513 28,850 24,655 3,609 - -

      1979

      49,132 5,559 13,912 11,934 1,499 480 29,660 25,595 3,476 - -

      1980

      49,316 5,903 13,900 11,621 1,707 573 29,513 25,557 3,380 - -

      1981

      49,669 6,213 13,832 11,524 1,680 628 29,624 25,729 3,212 - -

      1982

      49,947 6,427 14,235 11,575 2,048 613 29,285 25,387 3,149 - -

      1983

      50,134 6,549 13,692 11,100 1,944 647 29,893 26,119 2,996 - -

      1984

      50,395 6,630 12,952 10,472 1,852 628 30,814 27,035 2,891 - -

      1985

      50,978 6,693 12,961 10,406 1,897 658 31,324 27,787 2,764 - -

      1986

      51,574 6,731 12,565 9,984 1,917 664 32,278 28,811 2,730 - -

      1987

      51,847 6,741 12,435 9,787 1,946 702 32,671 29,369 2,576 - -

      1988

      52,149 6,754 11,876 9,463 1,777 636 33,519 30,536 2,303 532 148

      1989

      52,385 6,812 11,748 9,212 1,840 695 33,825 30,879 2,373 435 138

      1990

      52,241 6,770 11,630 9,107 1,826 698 33,841 30,829 2,369 479 164

      1991

      52,549 7,091 11,523 8,873 1,993 657 33,935 31,049 2,161 527 197

      1992

      53,254 7,256 11,977 9,114 2,145 718 34,021 31,268 1,940 624 189

      1993

      53,248 7,282 11,842 8,745 2,411 687 34,123 31,302 2,051 614 156

      1994

      53,929 7,227 11,774 8,719 2,374 681 34,928 32,125 2,048 603 151

      1995

      53,621 7,278 11,739 8,821 2,253 664 34,604 32,061 1,878 539 127

      1996

      53,654 7,148 11,556 8,671 2,214 671 34,950 32,406 1,899 522 123

      1997

      54,362 7,289 11,728 8,792 2,302 634 35,345 32,764 1,853 569 158

      1998

      54,829 7,257 12,279 9,198 2,419 662 35,293 32,810 1,726 616 141

      1999

      55,352 7,163 12,328 9,093 2,595 640 35,861 33,360 1,815 519 167

      2000

      56,643 7,463 12,717 9,515 2,601 600 36,463 33,892 1,865 566 139

      2001

      56,798 7,666 12,907 9,621 2,698 588 36,224 33,696 1,898 501 129

      2002

      57,362 7,803 13,487 10,109 2,818 560 36,071 33,547 1,845 558 121

      2003

      57,767 8,043 14,051 10,469 3,026 557 35,673 33,220 1,789 548 117

      2004

      58,045 7,996 14,352 10,821 2,991 540 35,696 33,131 1,832 610 123

      2005

      58,225 8,017 14,292 10,603 3,096 593 35,915 33,380 1,818 597 121

      2006

      59,050 8,091 14,545 10,693 3,261 591 36,414 33,880 1,752 639 142

      2007

      58,490 7,914 14,264 10,392 3,265 608 36,312 33,718 1,847 597 149

      2008

      59,183 8,083 14,622 10,567 3,435 620 36,477 33,930 1,739 650 158

      2009

      58,516 8,466 15,035 10,565 3,849 621 35,015 32,327 1,789 739 160

      2010

      58,135 8,626 15,406 10,880 3,935 591 34,103 31,425 1,783 722 172

      2011

      59,071 9,152 15,972 11,301 4,015 656 33,947 31,212 1,833 739 163

      2012

      59,327 9,101 15,831 11,271 3,891 669 34,395 31,594 1,881 750 170

      2013

      59,795 9,556 15,825 11,368 3,788 669 34,414 31,685 1,849 711 169

      2014

      60,091 9,434 15,627 11,240 3,767 620 35,030 32,000 2,082 764 183

      2015

      60,338 9,379 15,640 11,178 3,733 729 35,320 32,333 2,028 756 203

      2016

      60,912 9,814 15,490 11,054 3,742 695 35,608 32,647 2,054 752 155

      2017

      61,348 9,944 15,887 11,386 3,841 660 35,517 32,430 2,092 781 214

      Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

      Table 24B. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Percent distribution)
      Year Married-couple families
      Total No earners One earner Two or more earners
      Total Husband only Wife only Other family member Total Husband and wife Husband and other family member Wife and other family member Husband and wife are not earners

      1967

      100.0 6.8 38.1 35.6 1.7 0.8 55.1 43.6 10.7 - -

      1968

      100.0 6.6 37.4 34.9 1.7 0.8 56.1 45.0 10.3 - -

      1969

      100.0 6.8 36.6 34.1 1.8 0.8 56.6 45.7 10.2 - -

      1970

      100.0 7.3 35.9 33.3 1.9 0.7 56.8 45.7 10.3 - -

      1971

      100.0 7.6 36.7 33.7 2.2 0.7 55.8 44.9 10.1 - -

      1972

      100.0 7.8 36.0 33.0 2.2 0.9 56.2 45.7 9.8 - -

      1973

      100.0 8.5 34.1 30.8 2.4 0.9 57.4 46.9 9.6 - -

      1974

      100.0 9.1 33.3 29.8 2.6 1.0 57.6 47.3 9.4 - -

      1975

      100.0 10.3 33.9 30.0 2.9 1.0 55.8 46.7 8.1 - -

      1976

      100.0 10.3 32.5 28.4 3.0 1.1 57.2 48.0 8.0 - -

      1977

      100.0 10.8 31.4 27.3 3.0 1.1 57.8 48.8 7.9 - -

      1978

      100.0 10.8 29.8 25.6 3.1 1.1 59.4 50.8 7.4 - -

      1979

      100.0 11.3 28.3 24.3 3.1 1.0 60.4 52.1 7.1 - -

      1980

      100.0 12.0 28.2 23.6 3.5 1.2 59.8 51.8 6.9 - -

      1981

      100.0 12.5 27.8 23.2 3.4 1.3 59.6 51.8 6.5 - -

      1982

      100.0 12.9 28.5 23.2 4.1 1.2 58.6 50.8 6.3 - -

      1983

      100.0 13.1 27.3 22.1 3.9 1.3 59.6 52.1 6.0 - -

      1984

      100.0 13.2 25.7 20.8 3.7 1.2 61.1 53.6 5.7 - -

      1985

      100.0 13.1 25.4 20.4 3.7 1.3 61.4 54.5 5.4 - -

      1986

      100.0 13.1 24.4 19.4 3.7 1.3 62.6 55.9 5.3 - -

      1987

      100.0 13.0 24.0 18.9 3.8 1.4 63.0 56.6 5.0 - -

      1988

      100.0 13.0 22.8 18.1 3.4 1.2 64.3 58.6 4.4 1.0 0.3

      1989

      100.0 13.0 22.4 17.6 3.5 1.3 64.6 58.9 4.5 0.8 0.3

      1990

      100.0 13.0 22.3 17.4 3.5 1.3 64.8 59.0 4.5 0.9 0.3

      1991

      100.0 13.5 21.9 16.9 3.8 1.3 64.6 59.1 4.1 1.0 0.4

      1992

      100.0 13.6 22.5 17.1 4.0 1.3 63.9 58.7 3.6 1.2 0.4

      1993

      100.0 13.7 22.2 16.4 4.5 1.3 64.1 58.8 3.9 1.2 0.3

      1994

      100.0 13.4 21.8 16.2 4.4 1.3 64.8 59.6 3.8 1.1 0.3

      1995

      100.0 13.6 21.9 16.5 4.2 1.2 64.5 59.8 3.5 1.0 0.2

      1996

      100.0 13.3 21.5 16.2 4.1 1.3 65.1 60.4 3.5 1.0 0.2

      1997

      100.0 13.4 21.6 16.2 4.2 1.2 65.0 60.3 3.4 1.0 0.3

      1998

      100.0 13.2 22.4 16.8 4.4 1.2 64.4 59.8 3.1 1.1 0.3

      1999

      100.0 12.9 22.3 16.4 4.7 1.2 64.8 60.3 3.3 0.9 0.3

      2000

      100.0 13.2 22.5 16.8 4.6 1.1 64.4 59.8 3.3 1.0 0.2

      2001

      100.0 13.5 22.7 16.9 4.8 1.0 63.8 59.3 3.3 0.9 0.2

      2002

      100.0 13.6 23.5 17.6 4.9 1.0 62.9 58.5 3.2 1.0 0.2

      2003

      100.0 13.9 24.3 18.1 5.2 1.0 61.8 57.5 3.1 0.9 0.2

      2004

      100.0 13.8 24.7 18.6 5.2 0.9 61.5 57.1 3.2 1.1 0.2

      2005

      100.0 13.8 24.5 18.2 5.3 1.0 61.7 57.3 3.1 1.0 0.2

      2006

      100.0 13.7 24.6 18.1 5.5 1.0 61.7 57.4 3.0 1.1 0.2

      2007

      100.0 13.5 24.4 17.8 5.6 1.0 62.1 57.6 3.2 1.0 0.3

      2008

      100.0 13.7 24.7 17.9 5.8 1.0 61.6 57.3 2.9 1.1 0.3

      2009

      100.0 14.5 25.7 18.1 6.6 1.1 59.8 55.2 3.1 1.3 0.3

      2010

      100.0 14.8 26.5 18.7 6.8 1.0 58.7 54.1 3.1 1.2 0.3

      2011

      100.0 15.5 27.0 19.1 6.8 1.1 57.5 52.8 3.1 1.3 0.3

      2012

      100.0 15.3 26.7 19.0 6.6 1.1 58.0 53.3 3.2 1.3 0.3

      2013

      100.0 16.0 26.5 19.0 6.3 1.1 57.6 53.0 3.1 1.2 0.3

      2014

      100.0 15.7 26.0 18.7 6.3 1.0 58.3 53.3 3.5 1.3 0.3

      2015

      100.0 15.5 25.9 18.5 6.2 1.2 58.5 53.6 3.4 1.3 0.3

      2016

      100.0 16.1 25.4 18.1 6.1 1.1 58.5 53.6 3.4 1.2 0.3

      2017

      100.0 16.2 25.9 18.6 6.3 1.1 57.9 52.9 3.4 1.3 0.3

      Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

      Table 25. Contribution of wives' earnings to family income, 1970–2017
      Year Contribution to family income (median percentage)

      1970

      26.6

      1971

      27.5

      1972

      26.7

      1973

      26.0

      1974

      25.4

      1975

      26.3

      1976

      26.4

      1977

      26.1

      1978

      26.1

      1979

      26.0

      1980

      26.7

      1981

      27.3

      1982

      28.4

      1983

      28.8

      1984

      28.4

      1985

      28.3

      1986

      29.0

      1987

      29.5

      1988

      29.6

      1989

      29.9

      1990

      30.7

      1991

      31.3

      1992

      32.4

      1993

      32.2

      1994

      31.9

      1995

      31.9

      1996

      32.6

      1997

      32.7

      1998

      32.8

      1999

      32.8

      2000

      33.5

      2001

      34.4

      2002

      34.8

      2003

      35.2

      2004

      34.9

      2005

      35.1

      2006

      35.6

      2007

      36.0

      2008

      36.0

      2009

      37.1

      2010

      37.6

      2011

      37.0

      2012

      37.3

      2013

      37.3

      2014

      36.0

      2015

      37.1

      2016

      37.1

      2017

      37.1

      Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1971-2018.

      Table 26. Working poor: Poverty status of people in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
      Age and gender Total Below poverty level Rate[¹]
      Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino

      Total, 16 years and older

      154,762 120,750 19,225 9,699 26,371 6,946 4,754 1,518 279 2,082 4.5 3.9 7.9 2.9 7.9

        16 to 19 years

      3,620 2,851 462 119 769 305 196 74 5 89 8.4 6.9 16.1 4.3 11.6

      20 to 24 years

      13,170 9,883 1,951 591 2,890 1,115 672 325 27 241 8.5 6.8 16.6 4.6 8.3

      25 to 34 years

      35,065 26,235 4,958 2,420 6,968 1,997 1,324 510 65 603 5.7 5.0 10.3 2.7 8.7

      35 to 44 years

      32,662 24,740 4,271 2,519 6,539 1,646 1,170 309 68 645 5.0 4.7 7.2 2.7 9.9

      45 to 54 years

      32,769 25,812 3,930 2,136 5,354 1,023 744 166 59 329 3.1 2.9 4.2 2.8 6.1

      55 to 64 years

      27,190 22,359 2,845 1,458 3,061 709 533 108 51 147 2.6 2.4 3.8 3.5 4.8

      65 years and older

      10,286 8,870 808 455 791 152 116 27 4 27 1.5 1.3 3.3 0.9 3.4

      Women, 16 years and older

      72,199 55,030 10,178 4,497 11,286 3,814 2,463 1,015 113 1,032 5.3 4.5 10.0 2.5 9.1

      16 to 19 years

      1,848 1,454 250 52 392 191 122 50 2 47 10.3 8.4 19.9 - 12.1

        20 to 24 years

      6,328 4,690 986 274 1,298 640 379 205 11 132 10.1 8.1 20.8 4.1 10.2

      25 to 34 years

      16,078 11,726 2,591 1,072 2,930 1,173 710 384 21 313 7.3 6.1 14.8 1.9 10.7

      35 to 44 years

      14,922 10,952 2,268 1,154 2,702 859 567 202 30 293 5.8 5.2 8.9 2.6 10.8

      45 to 54 years

      15,539 11,923 2,131 1,036 2,306 527 381 90 24 164 3.4 3.2 4.2 2.3 7.1

      55 to 64 years

      13,008 10,530 1,515 695 1,326 347 245 67 23 64 2.7 2.3 4.4 3.3 4.9

      65 years and older

      4,476 3,755 437 215 332 78 58 17 2 18 1.7 1.6 3.9 0.9 5.4

      Men, 16 years and older

      82,562 65,721 9,047 5,202 15,085 3,132 2,291 503 166 1,051 3.8 3.5 5.6 3.2 7.0

      16 to 19 years

      1,772 1,397 212 67 377 114 74 25 3 42 6.4 5.3 11.6 - 11.1

      20 to 24 years

      6,842 5,193 965 317 1,592 475 292 119 16 109 6.9 5.6 12.3 5.0 6.8

      25 to 34 years

      18,987 14,509 2,366 1,349 4,038 824 614 126 44 290 4.3 4.2 5.3 3.3 7.2

      35 to 44 years

      17,740 13,788 2,003 1,366 3,837 787 602 107 38 352 4.4 4.4 5.3 2.8 9.2

      45 to 54 years

      17,230 13,889 1,799 1,100 3,048 496 363 76 35 165 2.9 2.6 4.2 3.2 5.4

      55 to 64 years

      14,182 11,829 1,330 764 1,735 363 287 41 27 83 2.6 2.4 3.1 3.6 4.8

      65 years and older

      5,810 5,116 371 240 458 74 58 10 2 9 1.3 1.1 2.6 0.9 2.0

      [¹] Number below the poverty level as a percentage of the total in the labor force for 27 or more weeks.

      Note: These data reflect the earnings and work experience for the entire year. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data where labor force base is less than 80,000.

      Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

       Table 27. Displaced workers, by age, gender, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and employment status, January 2018
      Age, gender, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total number of displaced workers[1] (in thousands) Percentage distribution by employment status
      Total Employed Unemployed Not in the labor force

      Total, 20 years and older

      2,981 100.0 66.4 14.4 19.3

      20 to 24 years

      73 100.0 - - -

      25 to 54 years

      1,759 100.0 75.6 14.9 9.4

      55 to 64 years

      798 100.0 60.2 14.9 24.8

      65 years and older

      351 100.0 30.7 12.2 57.2

      Women, 20 years and older

      1,301 100.0 65.0 13.8 21.3

      20 to 24 years

      40 100.0 - - -

      25 to 54 years

      771 100.0 76.3 12.0 11.7

      55 to 64 years

      315 100.0 58.2 19.3 22.4

      65 years and older

      175 100.0 24.3 14.9 60.8

      Men, 20 years and older

      1,681 100.0 67.4 14.8 17.7

      20 to 24 years

      33 100.0 - - -

      25 to 54 years

      988 100.0 75.1 17.2 7.7

      55 to 64 years

      483 100.0 61.5 12.0 26.4

      65 years and older

      176 100.0 37.0 9.4 53.5

      White

      Total, 20 years and older

      2,435 100.0 65.3 14.3 20.4

      Women

      1,045 100.0 64.4 13.6 22.0

      Men

      1,390 100.0 66.0 14.7 19.3

      Black or African American

      Total, 20 years and older

      285 100.0 65.9 21.2 12.9

      Women

      146 100.0 63.7 20.7 15.6

      Men

      139 100.0 68.3 21.8 10.0

      Asian

      Total, 20 years and older

      157 100.0 69.9 7.5 22.5

      Women

      74 100.0 - - -

      Men

      83 100.0 78.2 5.8 16.0

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      Total, 20 years and older

      404 100.0 68.6 21.8 9.6

      Women

      167 100.0 63.7 27.1 9.2

      Men

      238 100.0 72.1 18.1 9.9

      [¹] Displaced workers are defined as workers who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2015 and December 2017 because of plant or company closings or relocations, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions or shifts.

      Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement.

      Table 28. Employed wage and salary workers, by age, gender, and median years of tenure with current employer, selected years, 2004–18
      Age and gender January 2004 January 2006 January 2008 January 2010 January 2012 January 2014 January 2016 January 2018

      Total, 16 years and older

      4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.2

      16 to 17 years

      0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6

      18 to 19 years

      0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

      20 to 24 years

      1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

      25 years and older

      4.9 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.0

      25 to 34 years

      2.9 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8

      35 to 44 years

      4.9 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.2 4.9 4.9

      45 to 54 years

      7.7 7.3 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.6

      55 to 64 years

      9.6 9.3 9.9 10.0 10.3 10.4 10.1 10.1

      65 years and older

      9.0 8.8 10.2 9.9 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.2

      Women, 16 years and older

      3.8 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.0 4.0

      16 to 17 years

      0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7

      18 to 19 years

      0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

      20 to 24 years

      1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2

      25 years and older

      4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.0 4.9

      25 to 34 years

      2.8 2.8 2.6 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.7

      35 to 44 years

      4.5 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.7

      45 to 54 years

      6.4 6.7 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.5 7.1

      55 to 64 years

      9.2 9.2 9.8 9.7 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.1

      65 years and older

      9.6 9.5 9.9 10.1 10.5 10.5 10.4 10.1

      Men, 16 years and older

      4.1 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.3

      16 to 17 years

      0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5

      18 to 19 years

      0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8

      20 to 24 years

      1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

      25 years and older

      5.1 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.1

      25 to 34 years

      3.0 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.9

      35 to 44 years

      5.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.0 5.0

      45 to 54 years

      9.6 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.5 8.2 8.4 8.1

      55 to 64 years

      9.8 9.5 10.1 10.4 10.7 10.7 10.2 10.2

      65 years and older

      8.2 8.3 10.4 9.7 10.2 10.0 10.2 10.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, January 2004–18 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure and Occupational Mobility Supplement.

      Table 29. Labor force status of 2018 high school graduates and 2017–18 high school dropouts 16 to 24 years old, by school enrollment and gender, October 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
      Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total, 2018 high school graduates[¹]

      3,212 1,541 48.0 1,324 41.2 218 14.1 1,670

      Women

      1,598 755 47.2 634 39.7 121 16.0 843

      Men

      1,614 787 48.8 690 42.8 97 12.3 827

      Enrolled in college

      2,220 808 36.4 726 32.7 82 10.1 1,412

      Percentage of total 2018 graduates

      69.1 52.4 - 54.9 - 37.5 - 84.5

      Women

      1,140 405 35.5 360 31.6 45 11.1 735

      Percentage of female 2018 graduates

      71.4 53.7 - 56.8 - 37.4 - 87.2

      Men

      1,080 403 37.3 366 33.9 36 8.9 677

      Percentage of male 2018 graduates

      66.9 51.2 - 53.1 - 37.6 - 81.9

      Not enrolled in college

      992 733 73.9 597 60.2 136 18.6 258

      Percentage of total 2018 graduates

      30.9 47.6 - 45.1 - 62.5 - 15.5

      Women

      458 349 76.2 273 59.6 76 21.8 108

      Percentage of female 2018 graduates

      28.6 46.3 - 43.2 - 62.6 - 12.8

      Men

      534 384 71.9 324 60.7 60 15.6 150

      Percentage of male 2018 graduates

      33.1 48.8 - 46.9 - 62.4 - 18.1

      Total, 2017-18 high school dropouts[²]

      527 249 47.2 215 40.8 34 13.7 278

      Women

      277 132 47.7 112 40.4 20 15.2 145

      Men

      249 117 47.0 102 41.0 14 12.0 133

      [¹] Data refer to people who graduated from high school in January through October 2018.

      [²] Data refer to people who dropped out of school between October 2017 and October 2018.

      Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Sums of individual items may not equal totals because of rounding.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement.

      Table 30. Labor force status of people 16 to 24 years old, by school enrollment, gender, and educational attainment, October 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
      Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Enrolled in school

      21,698 7,962 36.7 7,429 34.2 533 6.7 13,735

      Women

      11,083 4,390 39.6 4,125 37.2 265 6.0 6,693

      Men

      10,614 3,572 33.7 3,304 31.1 268 7.5 7,042

      Enrolled in high school[¹]

      9,435 2,137 22.7 1,912 20.3 225 10.5 7,298

      Women

      4,465 1,100 24.6 993 22.2 107 9.7 3,365

      Men

      4,970 1,037 20.9 919 18.5 118 11.4 3,933

      Enrolled in college

      12,263 5,825 47.5 5,517 45.0 308 5.3 6,437

      Women

      6,618 3,290 49.7 3,132 47.3 159 4.8 3,328

      Men

      5,644 2,535 44.9 2,385 42.3 150 5.9 3,110

      Not enrolled in school

      16,264 12,866 79.1 11,691 71.9 1,175 9.1 3,398

      Women

      7,772 5,980 76.9 5,438 70.0 541 9.1 1,792

      Less than a high school diploma

      953 514 54.0 451 47.3 63 12.3 439

      High school graduates, no college[²]

      3,118 2,271 72.8 1,980 63.5 291 12.8 847

      Some college or associate's degree

      2,090 1,703 81.5 1,615 77.3 88 5.2 387

      Bachelor’s degree and higher

      1,612 1,492 92.6 1,393 86.5 99 6.6 120

      Men

      8,492 6,886 81.1 6,252 73.6 634 9.2 1,606

      Less than a high school diploma

      1,212 767 63.3 646 53.3 121 15.7 445

      High school graduates, no college[²]

      4,209 3,393 80.6 3,067 72.9 325 9.6 817

      Some college or associate's degree

      1,894 1,643 86.8 1,527 80.6 116 7.1 251

      Bachelor’s degree and higher

      1,177 1,084 92.1 1,012 86.0 72 6.6 93

      [¹] Includes a small number of people enrolled in grades below high school.

      [²] Includes those who have earned a high school diploma or the equivalent.

      Note: Sums of individual items may not equal totals because of rounding.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement.

      Table 31. Multiple jobholders and multiple jobholding rates, by gender, 1994–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Total employed Multiple jobholders Multiple-jobholding rate[¹]
      Total Women Men Total Women Men
      Number Percentage of all multiple jobholders

      1994

      123,060 7,260 3,336 46.0 3,924 5.9 5.9 5.9

      1995

      124,900 7,693 3,554 46.2 4,139 6.2 6.2 6.1

      1996

      126,708 7,832 3,640 46.5 4,192 6.2 6.2 6.1

      1997

      129,558 7,955 3,718 46.7 4,237 6.1 6.2 6.1

      1998

      131,463 7,926 3,748 47.3 4,178 6.0 6.2 5.9

      1999

      133,488 7,802 3,698 47.4 4,104 5.8 6.0 5.7

      2000

      136,891 7,604 3,608 47.4 3,996 5.6 5.7 5.5

      2001

      136,933 7,357 3,523 47.9 3,834 5.4 5.5 5.2

      2002

      136,485 7,291 3,557 48.8 3,734 5.3 5.6 5.1

      2003

      137,736 7,315 3,599 49.2 3,716 5.3 5.6 5.1

      2004

      139,252 7,473 3,638 48.7 3,835 5.4 5.6 5.1

      2005

      141,730 7,546 3,691 48.9 3,855 5.3 5.6 5.1

      2006

      144,427 7,576 3,753 49.5 3,822 5.2 5.6 4.9

      2007

      146,047 7,655 3,822 49.9 3,833 5.2 5.6 4.9

      2008

      145,362 7,620 3,783 49.6 3,837 5.2 5.6 5.0

      2009

      139,877 7,271 3,741 51.5 3,530 5.2 5.6 4.8

      2010

      139,064 6,878 3,552 51.6 3,326 4.9 5.4 4.5

      2011

      139,869 6,880 3,496 50.8 3,384 4.9 5.3 4.6

      2012

      142,469 6,943 3,495 50.3 3,448 4.9 5.2 4.6

      2013

      143,929 7,002 3,517 50.2 3,486 4.9 5.2 4.6

      2014

      146,305 7,146 3,636 50.9 3,511 4.9 5.3 4.5

      2015

      148,834 7,262 3,692 50.8 3,571 4.9 5.3 4.5

      2016

      151,436 7,531 3,887 51.6 3,645 5.0 5.5 4.5

      2017

      153,337 7,545 3,798 50.3 3,748 4.9 5.3 4.6

      2018

      155,761 7,769 3,934 50.6 3,835 5.0 5.4 4.6

      [¹] Multiple jobholders as a percentage of all employed people in specified group.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 32. Unincorporated self-employed people in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Total Women Men Self-employed women as percentage of total self-employed
      Total employed Self-employed Self-employed as a percentage of total Total employed Self-employed Self-employed as a percentage of total Total employed Self-employed Self-employed as a percentage of total

      1976

      85,421 5,783 6.8 35,027 1,549 4.4 50,394 4,233 8.4 26.8

      1977

      88,734 6,114 6.9 36,677 1,692 4.6 52,057 4,423 8.5 27.7

      1978

      92,661 6,429 6.9 38,900 1,814 4.7 53,761 4,614 8.6 28.2

      1979

      95,477 6,791 7.1 40,556 1,982 4.9 54,921 4,810 8.8 29.2

      1980

      95,938 7,000 7.3 41,461 2,097 5.1 54,477 4,904 9.0 30.0

      1981

      97,030 7,097 7.3 42,333 2,192 5.2 54,697 4,905 9.0 30.9

      1982

      96,125 7,262 7.6 42,591 2,309 5.4 53,534 4,954 9.3 31.8

      1983

      97,450 7,575 7.8 43,367 2,439 5.6 54,083 5,136 9.5 32.2

      1984

      101,685 7,785 7.7 45,262 2,566 5.7 56,423 5,219 9.2 33.0

      1985

      103,971 7,811 7.5 46,615 2,603 5.6 57,356 5,207 9.1 33.3

      1986

      106,434 7,881 7.4 48,054 2,610 5.4 58,381 5,271 9.0 33.1

      1987

      109,232 8,201 7.5 49,668 2,778 5.6 59,564 5,423 9.1 33.9

      1988

      111,800 8,519 7.6 51,020 2,955 5.8 60,780 5,564 9.2 34.7

      1989

      114,142 8,605 7.5 52,341 3,043 5.8 61,802 5,562 9.0 35.4

      1990

      115,570 8,719 7.5 53,011 3,122 5.9 62,559 5,597 8.9 35.8

      1991

      114,449 8,850 7.7 52,815 3,150 6.0 61,634 5,700 9.2 35.6

      1992

      115,245 8,575 7.4 53,380 2,963 5.6 61,866 5,613 9.1 34.5

      1993

      117,144 8,959 7.6 54,273 3,065 5.6 62,871 5,894 9.4 34.2

      1994

      119,651 9,003 7.5 55,755 3,443 6.2 63,896 5,560 8.7 38.2

      1995

      121,460 8,902 7.3 56,642 3,440 6.1 64,818 5,461 8.4 38.6

      1996

      123,264 8,971 7.3 57,630 3,506 6.1 65,634 5,465 8.3 39.1

      1997

      126,159 9,056 7.2 59,026 3,550 6.0 67,133 5,506 8.2 39.2

      1998

      128,085 8,962 7.0 59,945 3,482 5.8 68,140 5,480 8.0 38.9

      1999

      130,207 8,790 6.8 61,193 3,424 5.6 69,014 5,366 7.8 39.0

      2000

      134,427 9,205 6.8 62,983 3,631 5.8 71,444 5,573 7.8 39.4

      2001

      134,635 9,121 6.8 63,147 3,594 5.7 71,488 5,527 7.7 39.4

      2002

      134,174 8,923 6.7 62,995 3,499 5.6 71,179 5,425 7.6 39.2

      2003

      135,461 9,344 6.9 63,824 3,609 5.7 71,636 5,736 8.0 38.6

      2004

      137,020 9,467 6.9 64,182 3,607 5.6 72,838 5,860 8.0 38.1

      2005

      139,532 9,509 6.8 65,213 3,565 5.5 74,319 5,944 8.0 37.5

      2006

      142,221 9,685 6.8 66,382 3,681 5.5 75,838 6,004 7.9 38.0

      2007

      143,952 9,557 6.6 67,302 3,637 5.4 76,650 5,920 7.7 38.1

      2008

      143,194 9,219 6.4 67,358 3,483 5.2 75,836 5,736 7.6 37.8

      2009

      137,775 8,995 6.5 65,712 3,468 5.3 72,062 5,527 7.7 38.6

      2010

      136,858 8,860 6.5 65,164 3,388 5.2 71,694 5,472 7.6 38.2

      2011

      137,615 8,603 6.3 65,023 3,341 5.1 72,592 5,262 7.2 38.8

      2012

      140,283 8,749 6.2 66,353 3,483 5.2 73,930 5,266 7.1 39.8

      2013

      141,799 8,619 6.1 67,058 3,508 5.2 74,742 5,111 6.8 40.7

      2014

      144,068 8,602 6.0 68,061 3,444 5.1 76,007 5,158 6.8 40.0

      2015

      146,411 8,665 5.9 69,106 3,396 4.9 77,305 5,269 6.8 39.2

      2016

      148,976 8,751 5.9 70,247 3,385 4.8 78,729 5,366 6.8 38.7

      2017

      150,883 8,736 5.8 71,324 3,544 5.0 79,559 5,191 6.5 40.6

      2018

      153,336 8,941 5.8 72,435 3,518 4.9 80,902 5,423 6.7 39.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 33. Employment status of the native-born and foreign-born civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Native- or foreign-born status, age, and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
      Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
      Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

      Total

      Native born, 16 years and older[¹]

      214,892 133,872 62.3 128,544 59.8 5,328 4.0 81,020

      16 to 24 years

      34,561 19,223 55.6 17,539 50.7 1,684 8.8 15,338

      25 to 34 years

      36,635 30,682 83.8 29,447 80.4 1,235 4.0 5,953

      35 to 44 years

      31,071 26,099 84.0 25,315 81.5 784 3.0 4,972

      45 to 54 years

      32,525 26,267 80.8 25,529 78.5 738 2.8 6,258

      55 to 64 years

      35,572 22,929 64.5 22,310 62.7 619 2.7 12,643

      65 years and older

      44,529 8,673 19.5 8,404 18.9 269 3.1 35,857

      Foreign born, 16 years and older[²]

      42,898 28,202 65.7 27,217 63.4 986 3.5 14,696

      16 to 24 years

      3,443 1,761 51.2 1,638 47.6 124 7.0 1,682

      25 to 34 years

      7,946 6,092 76.7 5,877 74.0 215 3.5 1,854

      35 to 44 years

      9,499 7,520 79.2 7,302 76.9 219 2.9 1,978

      45 to 54 years

      8,715 7,044 80.8 6,844 78.5 200 2.8 1,671

      55 to 64 years

      6,542 4,425 67.6 4,255 65.0 170 3.8 2,117

      65 years and older

      6,754 1,360 20.1 1,301 19.3 58 4.3 5,394

      Women

      Native born, 16 years and older[¹]

      111,018 63,979 57.6 61,560 55.5 2,418 3.8 47,039

      16 to 24 years

      17,199 9,511 55.3 8,777 51.0 735 7.7 7,688

      25 to 34 years

      18,467 14,537 78.7 13,974 75.7 564 3.9 3,930

      35 to 44 years

      15,831 12,374 78.2 11,998 75.8 375 3.0 3,457

      45 to 54 years

      16,657 12,658 76.0 12,316 73.9 342 2.7 3,998

      55 to 64 years

      18,442 10,972 59.5 10,696 58.0 276 2.5 7,470

      65 years and older

      24,421 3,926 16.1 3,799 15.6 127 3.2 20,495

      Foreign born, 16 years and older[²]

      22,095 12,000 54.3 11,502 52.1 497 4.1 10,095

      16 to 24 years

      1,672 778 46.5 723 43.2 55 7.0 894

      25 to 34 years

      3,909 2,448 62.6 2,324 59.5 124 5.0 1,462

      35 to 44 years

      4,806 3,123 65.0 3,010 62.6 113 3.6 1,683

      45 to 54 years

      4,426 3,124 70.6 3,018 68.2 106 3.4 1,302

      55 to 64 years

      3,409 1,946 57.1 1,868 54.8 78 4.0 1,463

      65 years and older

      3,873 581 15.0 559 14.4 22 3.8 3,292

      Men

      Native born, 16 years and older[¹]

      103,875 69,894 67.3 66,984 64.5 2,910 4.2 33,981

      16 to 24 years

      17,361 9,711 55.9 8,762 50.5 949 9.8 7,650

      25 to 34 years

      18,168 16,145 88.9 15,474 85.2 671 4.2 2,023

      35 to 44 years

      15,240 13,726 90.1 13,317 87.4 409 3.0 1,514

      45 to 54 years

      15,868 13,609 85.8 13,213 83.3 396 2.9 2,259

      55 to 64 years

      17,130 11,957 69.8 11,614 67.8 343 2.9 5,173

      65 years and older

      20,108 4,746 23.6 4,605 22.9 141 3.0 15,361

      Foreign born, 16 years and older[²]

      20,803 16,203 77.9 15,714 75.5 488 3.0 4,601

      16 to 24 years

      1,771 984 55.5 915 51.7 69 7.0 787

      25 to 34 years

      4,037 3,644 90.3 3,553 88.0 92 2.5 392

      35 to 44 years

      4,693 4,397 93.7 4,292 91.4 106 2.4 296

      45 to 54 years

      4,289 3,919 91.4 3,826 89.2 94 2.4 369

      55 to 64 years

      3,133 2,479 79.1 2,387 76.2 92 3.7 654

      65 years and older

      2,881 779 27.0 742 25.8 36 4.6 2,102

      [¹] The native born are people who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas, such as Puerto Rico or Guam, or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

      [²] The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas, such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents who were not U.S. citizens. This group includes legally admitted immigrants, refugees, students, temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately identify the number of people in these categories.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 34. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers, by gender, 1983–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Year Total employed Members of unions[1] Represented by unions[2]
      Total Percentage of employed Total Percentage of employed

      Total

      1983

      88,290 17,717 20.1 20,532 23.3

      1984

      92,194 17,340 18.8 19,932 21.6

      1985

      94,521 16,996 18.0 19,358 20.5

      1986

      96,903 16,975 17.5 19,278 19.9

      1987

      99,303 16,913 17.0 19,051 19.2

      1988

      101,407 17,002 16.8 19,241 19.0

      1989

      103,480 16,960 16.4 19,198 18.6

      1990

      104,876 16,776 16.0 19,105 18.2

      1991

      103,723 16,612 16.0 18,790 18.1

      1992

      104,668 16,418 15.7 18,578 17.7

      1993

      106,101 16,627 15.7 18,682 17.6

      1994

      107,989 16,748 15.5 18,850 17.5

      1995

      110,038 16,360 14.9 18,346 16.7

      1996

      111,960 16,269 14.5 18,158 16.2

      1997

      114,533 16,110 14.1 17,923 15.6

      1998

      116,730 16,211 13.9 17,918 15.4

      1999

      118,963 16,477 13.9 18,182 15.3

      2000

      122,089 16,334 13.4 18,153 14.9

      2001

      122,229 16,305 13.3 18,026 14.7

      2002

      121,826 16,145 13.3 17,695 14.5

      2003

      122,358 15,776 12.9 17,448 14.3

      2004

      123,554 15,472 12.5 17,087 13.8

      2005

      125,889 15,685 12.5 17,223 13.7

      2006

      128,237 15,359 12.0 16,860 13.1

      2007

      129,767 15,670 12.1 17,243 13.3

      2008

      129,377 16,098 12.4 17,761 13.7

      2009

      124,490 15,327 12.3 16,904 13.6

      2010

      124,073 14,715 11.9 16,290 13.1

      2011

      125,187 14,764 11.8 16,290 13.0

      2012

      127,577 14,366 11.3 15,922 12.5

      2013

      129,110 14,528 11.3 16,028 12.4

      2014

      131,431 14,576 11.1 16,152 12.3

      2015

      133,743 14,795 11.1 16,441 12.3

      2016

      136,101 14,555 10.7 16,271 12.0

      2017

      137,890 14,817 10.7 16,444 11.9

      2018

      140,099 14,744 10.5 16,380 11.7

      Women

      1983

      40,433 5,908 14.6 7,262 18.0

      1984

      42,172 5,829 13.8 7,100 16.8

      1985

      43,506 5,732 13.2 6,910 15.9

      1986

      44,961 5,802 12.9 6,961 15.5

      1987

      46,365 5,842 12.6 6,907 14.9

      1988

      47,495 5,982 12.6 7,109 15.0

      1989

      48,691 6,141 12.6 7,243 14.9

      1990

      49,323 6,179 12.5 7,330 14.9

      1991

      49,105 6,142 12.5 7,247 14.8

      1992

      49,842 6,274 12.6 7,411 14.9

      1993

      50,626 6,516 12.9 7,610 15.0

      1994

      51,419 6,642 12.9 7,740 15.1

      1995

      52,369 6,430 12.3 7,479 14.3

      1996

      53,488 6,410 12.0 7,397 13.8

      1997

      54,708 6,347 11.6 7,304 13.4

      1998

      55,757 6,362 11.4 7,280 13.1

      1999

      57,050 6,528 11.4 7,425 13.0

      2000

      58,427 6,671 11.4 7,662 13.1

      2001

      58,582 6,768 11.6 7,672 13.1

      2002

      58,555 6,820 11.6 7,629 13.0

      2003

      59,122 6,732 11.4 7,601 12.9

      2004

      59,408 6,593 11.1 7,450 12.5

      2005

      60,423 6,815 11.3 7,626 12.6

      2006

      61,426 6,702 10.9 7,501 12.2

      2007

      62,299 6,903 11.1 7,749 12.4

      2008

      62,532 7,160 11.4 8,036 12.9

      2009

      60,951 6,887 11.3 7,727 12.7

      2010

      60,542 6,722 11.1 7,528 12.4

      2011

      60,502 6,758 11.2 7,558 12.5

      2012

      61,679 6,470 10.5 7,311 11.9

      2013

      62,316 6,573 10.5 7,340 11.8

      2014

      63,383 6,638 10.5 7,434 11.7

      2015

      64,445 6,833 10.6 7,681 11.9

      2016

      65,512 6,667 10.2 7,567 11.6

      2017

      66,421 6,651 10.0 7,514 11.3

      2018

      67,467 6,662 9.9 7,512 11.1

      Men

      1983

      47,856 11,809 24.7 13,270 27.7

      1984

      50,022 11,511 23.0 12,832 25.7

      1985

      51,015 11,264 22.1 12,448 24.4

      1986

      51,942 11,173 21.5 12,317 23.7

      1987

      52,938 11,071 20.9 12,144 22.9

      1988

      53,912 11,019 20.4 12,132 22.5

      1989

      54,789 10,820 19.7 11,955 21.8

      1990

      55,553 10,597 19.1 11,775 21.2

      1991

      54,618 10,470 19.2 11,542 21.1

      1992

      54,826 10,144 18.5 11,167 20.4

      1993

      55,475 10,112 18.2 11,072 20.0

      1994

      56,570 10,106 17.9 11,110 19.6

      1995

      57,669 9,929 17.2 10,868 18.8

      1996

      58,473 9,859 16.9 10,761 18.4

      1997

      59,825 9,763 16.3 10,619 17.7

      1998

      60,973 9,850 16.2 10,638 17.4

      1999

      61,914 9,949 16.1 10,758 17.4

      2000

      63,662 9,664 15.2 10,491 16.5

      2001

      63,647 9,538 15.0 10,354 16.3

      2002

      63,272 9,325 14.7 10,066 15.9

      2003

      63,236 9,044 14.3 9,848 15.6

      2004

      64,145 8,878 13.8 9,638 15.0

      2005

      65,466 8,870 13.5 9,597 14.7

      2006

      66,811 8,657 13.0 9,360 14.0

      2007

      67,468 8,767 13.0 9,494 14.1

      2008

      66,846 8,938 13.4 9,724 14.5

      2009

      63,539 8,441 13.3 9,176 14.4

      2010

      63,531 7,994 12.6 8,761 13.8

      2011

      64,686 8,006 12.4 8,731 13.5

      2012

      65,898 7,895 12.0 8,611 13.1

      2013

      66,794 7,955 11.9 8,688 13.0

      2014

      68,048 7,939 11.7 8,717 12.8

      2015

      69,298 7,963 11.5 8,760 12.6

      2016

      70,589 7,888 11.2 8,704 12.3

      2017

      71,469 8,166 11.4 8,930 12.5

      2018

      72,632 8,082 11.1 8,868 12.2

      [¹] Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

      [²] Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union, as well as workers who are not members of unions but whose jobs are covered by a union or employee association contract.

      Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 35. Employment status of people, 18 years and older, by veteran status, period of service, and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Veteran status, employment status, and period of service Total Women Men Women as a percentage of total

      Total veterans

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      19,201 1,866 17,335 9.7

      Civilian labor force

      9,453 1,133 8,320 12.0

      Participation rate

      49.2 60.7 48.0 -

      Employed

      9,127 1,099 8,027 12.0

      Employment-population ratio

      47.5 58.9 46.3 -

      Unemployed

      326 34 292 10.4

      Unemployment rate

      3.5 3.0 3.5 -

      Not in labor force

      9,748 732 9,015 7.5

      Gulf War-era II veterans

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      4,149 704 3,444 17.0

      Civilian labor force

      3,358 505 2,853 15.0

      Participation rate

      80.9 71.7 82.8 -

      Employed

      3,229 487 2,742 15.1

      Employment-population ratio

      77.8 69.1 79.6 -

      Unemployed

      129 18 111 13.9

      Unemployment rate

      3.8 3.5 3.9 -

      Not in labor force

      791 200 592 25.2

      Gulf War-era I veterans

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      3,089 490 2,599 15.9

      Civilian labor force

      2,427 360 2,066 14.9

      Participation rate

      78.6 73.5 79.5 -

      Employed

      2,358 353 2,005 15.0

      Employment-population ratio

      76.3 72.0 77.2 -

      Unemployed

      68 7 61 10.9

      Unemployment rate

      2.8 2.1 2.9 -

      Not in labor force

      662 130 533 19.6

      World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      7,626 260 7,366 3.4

      Civilian labor force

      1,594 53 1,541 3.3

      Participation rate

      20.9 20.3 20.9 -

      Employed

      1,537 52 1,485 3.4

      Employment-population ratio

      20.2 19.9 20.2 -

      Unemployed

      57 1 56 1.6

      Unemployment rate

      3.6 1.7 3.6 -

      Not in labor force

      6,033 207 5,826 3.4

      Veterans of other service periods

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      4,336 412 3,925 9.5

      Civilian labor force

      2,075 215 1,860 10.4

      Participation rate

      47.9 52.3 47.4 -

      Employed

      2,002 208 1,795 10.4

      Employment-population ratio

      46.2 50.5 45.7 -

      Unemployed

      73 8 65 10.6

      Unemployment rate

      3.5 3.6 3.5 -

      Not in labor force

      2,261 196 2,065 8.7

      Nonveterans

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      229,673 126,857 102,817 55.2

      Civilian labor force

      150,489 73,715 76,774 49.0

      Participation rate

      65.5 58.1 74.7 -

      Employed

      144,797 70,972 73,824 49.0

      Employment-population ratio

      63.0 55.9 71.8 -

      Unemployed

      5,693 2,743 2,950 48.2

      Unemployment rate

      3.8 3.7 3.8 -

      Not in labor force

      79,184 53,141 26,043 67.1

      Note: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Table 36. Employment and disability status of people, by gender and age, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
      Disability status, employment status, and age Total Women Men

      Total people with a disability

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      30,136 16,139 13,997

      Civilian labor force

      6,266 2,877 3,389

      Participation rate

      20.8 17.8 24.2

      Employed

      5,767 2,645 3,122

      Employment-population ratio

      19.1 16.4 22.3

      Unemployed

      499 232 267

      Unemployment rate

      8.0 8.1 7.9

      Not in labor force

      23,870 13,262 10,608

      16 to 64 years

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      15,325 7,814 7,512

      Civilian labor force

      5,111 2,418 2,693

      Participation rate

      33.3 30.9 35.8

      Employed

      4,666 2,208 2,457

      Employment-population ratio

      30.4 28.3 32.7

      Unemployed

      445 210 235

      Unemployment rate

      8.7 8.7 8.7

      Not in labor force

      10,215 5,396 4,819

      65 years and older

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      14,810 8,325 6,485

      Civilian labor force

      1,155 459 696

      Participation rate

      7.8 5.5 10.7

      Employed

      1,101 436 665

      Employment-population ratio

      7.4 5.2 10.3

      Unemployed

      54 23 31

      Unemployment rate

      4.7 4.9 4.5

      Not in labor force

      13,655 7,866 5,789

      Total people without a disability

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      227,655 116,974 110,681

      Civilian labor force

      155,809 73,102 82,707

      Participation rate

      68.4 62.5 74.7

      Employed

      149,994 70,418 79,576

      Employment-population ratio

      65.9 60.2 71.9

      Unemployed

      5,815 2,684 3,131

      Unemployment rate

      3.7 3.7 3.8

      Not in labor force

      71,846 43,872 27,974

      16 to 64 years

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      191,182 97,004 94,178

      Civilian labor force

      146,932 69,053 77,879

      Participation rate

      76.9 71.2 82.7

      Employed

      141,390 66,496 74,894

      Employment-population ratio

      74.0 68.5 79.5

      Unemployed

      5,542 2,557 2,985

      Unemployment rate

      3.8 3.7 3.8

      Not in labor force

      44,250 27,951 16,299

      65 years and older

      Civilian noninstitutional population

      36,472 19,969 16,503

      Civilian labor force

      8,877 4,049 4,828

      Participation rate

      24.3 20.3 29.3

      Employed

      8,604 3,922 4,682

      Employment-population ratio

      23.6 19.6 28.4

      Unemployed

      273 127 146

      Unemployment rate

      3.1 3.1 3.0

      Not in labor force

      27,595 15,921 11,675

      Note: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone, such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping, because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

      Technical Notes

      The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

      Information in this report will be made available upon request to individuals with sensory impairments. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200. Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339. Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

      Concepts and definitions

      Children.  Data on children refer to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

      Civilian labor force. This group is made up of all people classified as employed or unemployed.

      Civilian labor force participation rate. This rate is the civilian labor force as a percentage of the civilian noninstitutional population.

      Civilian noninstitutional population. Included are people 16 years of age and older residing in any of the 50 states or the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

      Disability. The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify people with disabilities. The questions are about physical, mental, or emotional conditions that cause serious difficulty with daily activities. For each of the questions, interviewers ask the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent replies “yes,” he or she is then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the condition. People are classified as having a disability if there is a response of “yes” to any of these questions. More information, including the wording of the six questions used to identify people with a disability, is available at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/demographics.htm#disability.

      Displaced workers. Displaced workers are wage and salary workers 20 years of age and older who lost or left jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. Data are presented for long-tenured displaced workers—those who had worked for their employer for 3 or more years at the time of displacement. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. Data are collected through a biennial supplement to the January CPS.

      Employed people. Employed people are all those who, during the survey reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, in a profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 or more hours as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or business because of illness, vacation, a labor dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

      Employment-population ratio. This ratio is the number of employed as a percentage of the population.

      Family. A family is a group of two or more people residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such individuals are considered members of one family. The count of families is for “primary” families only. A primary family consists of a householder and all other people related to and residing with the householder. Subfamilies are excluded from the count of families. A subfamily is a family that does not maintain their own household, such as a married couple living in the home of a friend and their family. In this example, the report would include only one family (the householder’s or primary family), not two. Families include those with and without children under 18 years. Families are further categorized as follows:

      • Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex married couples residing together and any of their family members residing in the household.

      • Families maintained by women or men are made up of householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse. The household may or may not include a same-sex spouse or an unmarried domestic partner of either sex.

      Foreign born. People resi­ding in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas (such as Puerto Rico or Guam) to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign-born population includes legally admitted immigrants; refugees; temporary residents, such as students and temporary workers; and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately identify the number of people in these categories. The native born are people born in the United States or one of its outlying areas or who were born abroad to at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This refers to people who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Information on the changes in questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity in 2003 is available at http://www.magnetmusik.com/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

      Hours at work. These are the actual hours worked (at all jobs) during the survey reference week, which is generally the week containing the 12th of the month. For example, people who normally work 40 hours a week but were off for 8 hours during the Columbus Day holiday would be reported as working 32 hours, even if they were paid for the holiday. (See related information on usual full- or part-time status.)

      Householder. The householder is the family reference person. This is the person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Other household members are defined as family members based on their relationship to the householder.

      Minimum wage. The estimates of the number of workers with earnings at or below the federal minimum wage pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other workers who are not paid by the hour are not included, even though some have earnings that, if converted to hourly rates, would be at or below the minimum wage. Consequently, the estimates presented in this report likely understate the actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the federal minimum wage. BLS does not routinely estimate the hourly earnings of workers not paid by the hour because of data quality concerns associated with such an estimation process.

      The prevailing federal minimum wage is $7.25, effective July 24, 2009. The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), because there are a number of exemptions to the minimum-wage provisions of the law. In addition, some workers might have rounded their hourly earnings in response to survey questions. As a result, some might have reported hourly earnings below the minimum wage when, in fact, they earned the minimum wage or higher.

      A number of states have established minimum wage rates that exceed the federal level. (Information on state minimum wage laws is available at www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm.) Users should be cautious about comparing state estimates in this report because of differing statutory minimum wages. It also should be noted that the CPS sample is based on residence (where workers live), which may or may not be located in the same state in which they work. In addition, the degree of sampling error may be quite large for some state estimates.

      Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all people in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.

      Occupation and industry. Occupation refers to the type of job or work that a person does, and industry refers to the business activity of a person’s employer or company. People with two or more jobs are classified as being in the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The CPS uses the Census Occupational Classification, based on the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC), and the 2012 census industry classification, derived from the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Additional information about these classifications is available online at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

      Poverty classification. Poverty statistics presented in this report are based on definitions developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and revised by federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1981. These definitions originally were based on the Department of Agriculture’s Economy Food Plan and reflected the different consumption requirements of families, predicated on the basis of factors such as family size and the number of children under 18 years of age.

      The actual poverty thresholds vary because of the makeup of the family. In 2017, the weighted average poverty threshold for a family of four was $24,858; for a family of nine or more people, the threshold was $50,861; and for one person (unrelated individual), it was $12,488. Poverty thresholds are updated each year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). Thresholds do not vary geographically. (For more information, see “Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017,” https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-263.html.)

      Race. In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget standards, White, Black or African American, and Asian are terms used to describe a person’s race. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race is available at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/rvcps03.pdf. Data for other race groups—American Indians and Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders—and for people of Two or More Races are included in totals but not separately identified in this report.

      Self-employed workers. Self-employed workers are those who work for profit or fees in their own business, in a profession, in a trade, or on a farm. The unincorporated self-employed are included in the self-employed category.

      Self-employed people whose businesses are incorporated are included with wage and salary workers, unless otherwise specified.

      Tenure. Employee tenure is a measure of how long wage and salary workers had been with their current employer at the time of the survey. Tenure is presented in median years; the median is the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. The data are collected through a biennial supplement to the January CPS.

      Unemployed. The unemployed are people who had no employment during the survey reference week, were available for work (except in the case of temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the survey reference week. People on temporary layoff do not need to look for work to be classified as unemployed.

      Unemployment rate. This rate is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

      Union membership. Union membership refers to members of a labor union or of an employee association similar to a union. The data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses.

      Usual full- or part-time status. To differentiate a person’s normal schedule from his or her activity during the survey reference week, BLS classifies people as either full- or part-time workers based on the number of hours they usually work per week, regardless of the number of hours worked in the reference week. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 or more hours per week (at all jobs combined). Part-time workers are those who usually work less than 35 hours per week (at all jobs).

      Usual weekly earnings. Data on usual weekly earnings represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, and tips usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, or hourly) are converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of “usual,” interviewers are instructed to define the term as “more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.” Data refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers (excluding all self-employed people, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated) and are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample.

      Earnings estimates are presented as median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The median is the point at which half of all workers had higher earnings and half had lower earnings.

      Veterans. Veterans are men and women 18 years or older who previously served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time they were surveyed. People who are on active duty at the time of the survey are outside the scope of the survey and thus not in the estimates shown here. Nonveterans are men and women who never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veteran status is obtained from responses to the question, “Did you ever serve on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?”

      Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in the private and the public sectors. This group also generally includes the incorporated self-employed because, legally, they are paid employees of a corporation. (Data on union membership, earnings, tenure, and displacement of wage and salary workers exclude all self-employed workers, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses.)

      Work experience. These data reflect work activity during the calendar year and are obtained from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS. Estimates of people who worked are based on “yes” responses to the following questions in the ASEC: “Did you work at a job or business at any time during [the survey reference year]?” or “Did you do any temporary, part-time, or seasonal work even for a few days during [the survey reference year]?” Because the reference period is a full year, the number of people with some employment exceeds the level for any given month, which is based on a 1-week reference period, and the corresponding annual averages of monthly estimates.

      Workers paid by the hour. These are wage and salary workers paid at an hourly rate on their main job. Historically, workers paid an hourly wage have made up approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers.

      Working poor. The working poor are people who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (that is, working or looking for work) but whose incomes still fell below the official poverty level.

      Reliability of the estimates

      Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. There are two reasons this occurs: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error occurs because samples differ by chance. The sampling error variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

      All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data. More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and on estimating standard errors is available at www.magnetmusik.com/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

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